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      1. personality B. component C. research D. hypothesis

    1. What is stated in paragraph 1 about Adler?

      1. He was one of the first to study the effect of birth order on personality.

      2. He believed that it was the actual birth order that affected personality.

      3. He had found that the responses by family members had little to do with personality.

      4. He was the only one to study birth order.

    2. The word “traits” in paragraph 3 is closest in meaning to .

      1. stresses B. marks C. characteristics D. fears

    3. Which of the sentences below expresses the essential information in the italic sentence in paragraph 3? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information

      1. In spite of certain characteristics that first-borns possess, many of them become leaders.

      2. An interesting fact that is difficult to explain is that many first-borns have served in high government positions.

      3. Because first-borns tend to be very assertive, they are uncomfortable serving in government positions.

      4. Several examples support the idea that first-borns have characteristics that make them leaders.

    4. The word “accepting” in paragraph 4 is closest in meaning to .

      1. tolerant B. affectionate C. admissible D. respectable

    5. Which of the following is NOT true?

      1. First-borns tend to do well in individual sports.

      2. Middle children tend to have a preference for team sports,

      3. Last-borns tend to prefer games with fierce competition.

      4. Only children tend to prefer individual over team sports.

    6. The phrase “more achievement oriented” in the paragraph 6 is closest in meaning to .

      1. more directly involved B. more focused on accomplishments

    C. more skilled as leaders D. more aware of surroundings

    1. Which of the following would be most likely to have a successful career but few close friendships?

      1. A second-born B. A middle child

    C. A last-born D. An only child
    Exercise 19: Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions.

    Psychologists have debated a long time about whether a child’s upbringing can give it the ability to do outstandingly well. Some think that it is impossible to develop genius and
    say that it is simply something a person is born with. Others, however, argue that the potential for great achievement can be developed. The truth lies somewhere between these two extremes.

    It seems very obvious that being born with the right qualities from gifted parents will increase a child’s ability to do well. However, this ability will be fully realized only with the right upbringing and opportunities. As one psychologist says, “To have a fast car, you need both a good engine and fuel.”

    Scientists have recently assessed intelligence, achievement, and ability in 50 sets of identical twins that were separated shortly after birth and brought up by different parents. They found that achievement was based on intelligence, and later influenced by the child’s environment.

    One case involving very intelligent twins was quoted. One of the twins received a normal upbringing, and performed well. The other twin, however, was brought up by extremely supportive parents and given every possible opportunity to develop its abilities. That twin, though starting out with the same degree of intelligence as the other, performed even better.

    This case reflects the general principle of intelligence and ability. The more favorable the environment, the more a child’s intelligence and ability are developed. However, there is no link between intelligence and the socioeconomic level of a child’s family. In other words, it does not matter how poor or how rich a family is, as this does not affect intelligence.

    Gifted people cannot be created by supportive parents, but they can be developed by them. One professor of music said that outstanding musicians usually started two or three years earlier than ordinary performers, often because their parents had recognized their ability. These musicians then needed at least ten years’ hard work and training in order to reach the level they were capable of attaining.

    People who want to have very gifted children are given the following advice:

    • Marry an intelligent person.

    • Allow children to follow their own interests rather than the interests of the parents.

    • Start a child’s education early but avoid pushing the child too hard.

    • Encourage children to play; for example, playing with musical instruments is essential for a child who wants to become an outstanding musician.

    1. The upbringing of highly intelligent children requires .

      1. an expensive education

      2. good musical instruments

      3. parental support and encouragement

      4. wealthy and loving parents

    2. The word “others’" used in the first paragraph refers to .

      1. other people B. other scientists

    C. other children D. other geniuses

    1. When scientists studied intelligence and ability in twins, they found that .

      1. ability depends mainly on intelligence and achievement

      2. intelligence and development are irrelevant to ability

      3. ability depends both on intelligence and on environment

      4. different twins generally have different levels of ability.

    2. Scientists chose twins for their study because .

      1. each twin has the same environment as his/her twin

      2. they are born into the same family, hence the same upbringing

      3. they have the same economic background and hence the same opportunities

      4. they have the same genetic background, usually with similar intelligence

    3. How were great musicians different from ordinary musicians in their development?

    A.Their ability was realized at an early stage and then nurtured.

    B.They practice playing their instruments for many years.

    1. They concentrated on music to the exclusion of other areas.

    2. They were exceptionally intelligent and artistic.

    1. The writer advises that gifted children should be allowed to follow .

      1. their own interests

      2. their parent’s interests

      3. only their interests in musical instruments

      4. only their interests in computer games

    2. When encouraging their gifted children, parents should avoid .

      1. pushing their children too hard.

      2. letting them play their own way

      3. permitting them to follow their own interests

      4. starting their education at an early age

    3. The remark: “To have a fast car, you need both a good engine and fuel. in paragraph 2 means that in order to become a genius .

      1. you need to have good health and good nourishment

      2. you need intelligence and you need to develop it

      3. you should try to move quickly and efficiently

      4. you must nourish your brain and train your muscles hard

    4. The word “favorable” in paragraph 5 mostly means .

      1. “good for someone and making him/her likely to be successful”

      2. “helping somebody to be more intelligent compared to other people”

      3. “of high quality or an acceptable standard”

      4. “under the control or in the power of somebody else”

    5. All of the following statements are true EXCEPT .

      1. educational development depends completely on economic well-being

      1. a child’s intelligence is influenced by that of his/ her parents

      2. to become successful, a child needs both native intelligence and development

      3. studying different twins is a useful scientific procedure
    Exercise 20: Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions.

    Animation traditionally is done by hand-drawing or painting successive frames of an object, each slightly different than the preceding frame. In computer animation, although the computer may be the one to draw the different frames, in most cases the artist will draw the beginning and ending frames and the computer will produce the drawings between the first and the last drawing. This is generally referred to as computer-assisted animation, because the computer is more of a helper than an originator.

    In full computer animation, complex mathematical formulas are used to produce the final sequence of pictures. These formulas operate on extensive databases of numbers that define the objects in the pictures as they exist in mathematical space. The database consists of endpoints, and color and intensity information. Highly trained professionals are needed to produce such effects because animation that obtains high degrees of realism involves computer techniques for three-dimensional transformation, shading, and curvatures.

    High-tech computer animation for film involves very expensive computer systems along with special color terminals or frame buffers. The frame buffer is nothing more than a giant image memory for viewing a single frame. It temporarily holds the image for display on the screen.

    A camera can be used to film directly from the computer's display screen, but for the highest quality images possible, expensive film recorders are used. The computer computes the positions and colors for the figures in the picture, and sends this information to the recorder, which captures it on film. Sometimes, however, the images are stored on a large magnetic disk before being sent to the recorder. Once this process is completed, it is repeated for the next frame. When the entire sequence has been recorded on the film, the film must be developed before the animation can be viewed. If the entire sequence does not seem right, the motions must be corrected recomputed, redisplayed, and rerecorded. This approach can be very expensive and time consuming. Often, computer-animation companies first do motion tests with simple computer-generated line drawings before selling their computers to the task of calculating the high-resolution, realistic-looking images.

    1. What aspect of computer animation does the passage mainly discuss?

      1. The production process B. The equipment needed

    C. The high cost D. The role of the artist

    1. According to the passage, in computer-assisted animation the role of the computer

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