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    1. assist in delicate surgeries

    2. control operations in inaccessible areas

    3. convert light pulses to electrical signals

    4. transmit images

  3. The passage will most likely be followed by a discussion of .

    1. homes and businesses of the future

    2. the structure of fiberscopes

    3. additional uses of fiberscopes in industry

    4. the use of fiber optics in the electronic superhighway
Exercise 17: Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the

correct answer to each of the questions.

My family consists of four people. There’s my father whose name is Jan, my mother whose name is Marie, my brother, Peter and of course, me. I have quite a large extended family as well but, only the four of us live together in our apartment in a block of flats. My father is fifty-two years old. He works as an accountant in an insurance company. He is tall and slim, has got short brown and gray hair and blue eyes. My father likes gardening very much as well as listening to music and reading books about political science. His special hobbies are bird watching and travelling.

Now I’ll describe my mother and my brother. My mother is forty-seven and she works as a nurse in a hospital. She is small, and slim, has short brown hair and green eyes. She likes bird watching and travelling too, so whenever my parents are able to they go some place interesting for nature watching. Since we have a cottage with a garden they both spend a lot of time there. My brother is sixteen. He is slim and has short brown hair and blue eyes. He also attends high school. He is interested in computers and sports like football and hockey. He also spends a lot of time with his friends.

I have only one grandmother left still living. She is in pretty good health even at the age of seventy-eight so she still lives in her own flat. I enjoy spending time with her when I can. Both my grandfathers died from cancer because they were smokers, which was really a great tragedy because I didn’t get chance to know them. My other grandmother died just a few years ago. I also have a lot of aunts, uncles, and cousins. The cousin I’m closest to is my uncle’s daughter Pauline. We have a lot in common because we are both eighteen and so we are good friends.

My parents have assigned me certain duties around the house. I don’t mind helping out because everyone in a family should contribute in some way. I help with the washing up, the vacuuming and the shopping. Of course I also have to help keep my room tidy as well. My brother is responsible for the dusting and mopping. He also has to clean his own room. Even though my brother and I sometimes fight about who has to do what job, we are still very close. I am also very close to my parents and I can rely on them to help me. My parents work together to keep our home well maintained and it seem they always have a project or another that they are working on. They respect each other’s opinions and even if they disagree they can always come to a compromise. I hope in the future that I have a family like ours.

  1. What is the writer’s father?

    1. a cashier B. an accountant C. a receptionist D. a writer

  2. Which of the followings is NOT the hobby of the writer’s father?

    1. listening to music B. bird watching

C. painting D. doing the gardening

  1. Where does the writer’s mother work?

    1. an a clinic B. at home C. in a company D. in a hospital

  2. What does the writer’s mother look like?

A. She is slim and small

B. She is small and has grey hair

C. She has blue eve

D. She has long brown hair.


What does the writer’s brother do?

A. a computer programmer

B. a high school student

C. a college student

D. a football player

  1. What happened to the writer’s grandfathers?

    1. They died because they smoked too much.

    2. They got lung cancer a few years ago,

    3. They had to leave their own flat.

    4. They had an accident and died.

  2. The word “tragedy” in the third paragraph mostly means .

    1. bad luck B. sudden accident

C. sad event D. boring result

  1. The word “assigned” in the fourth paragraph mostly means .

    1. allowed B. appointed C. forced D. encouraged

  2. What does the writer do to help her parents at home?

    1. She does the dusting. B. She does the mopping.

C. She does the washing. D. She does the shopping.

  1. Which of the following statements is NOT true?

    1. The writer’s mother likes travelling.

    2. One of the writer’s grandmothers is living with her.

    3. The writer’s brother has to clean his own room.

    4. The writer has a cousin whose age is the same as hers.
Exercise 18: Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions.

A considerable body of research has demonstrated a correlation between birth order and aspects such as temperament and behavior, and some psychologists believe that birth order significantly affects the development of personality. Psychologist. Alfred Adler was a pioneer in the study of the relationship between birth order and personality. A key point in his research and in the hypothesis that he developed based on it was that it was not the actual numerical birth position that affected personality; instead, it was the similar responses in large numbers of families to children in specific birth order positions that had an effect. For example, first-borns, who have their parents to themselves initially and do not have to deal with siblings in the first part of their lives, tend to have their first socialization experiences with adults and therefore tend to find the process of peer socialization more difficult. In contrast, later-born children have to deal with siblings from the first moment of their lives and therefore tend to have stronger socialization skills.

Numerous studies since Adler’s have been conducted on the effect of birth order and personality. These studies have tended to classify birth order types into four different
categories: first-born, second-born and/or middle, last, and only child.

Studies have consistently shown that first-born children tend to exhibit similar, positive and negative personality traits. First-borns have consistently been linked with academic achievement in various studies; in one study, the number of National Merit scholarship winners who are first-borns was found to be equal to the number of second-ancI third-borns combined. First-borns have been found to be more responsible and assertive than those born in other birth-order positions and tend to rise to positions of leadership more often than others; more first-borns have served in the U.S. Congress and as U.S. presidents than have those born in other birth-order positions. However, studies have shown that first-borns tend to be more subject to stress and were considered problem children more often than later-borns.

Second-born and/or middle children demonstrate markedly different tendencies from first-borns. They tend to feel inferior to the older child or children because it is difficult for them to comprehend that their lower level of achievement is a function of age rather than ability, and they often try to succeed in areas other than those in which their older sibling or siblings excel. They tend to be more trusting, accepting, and focused on others than the more self-centered first-borns, and they tend to have a

comparatively higher level of success in team sports than do first-borns or only children, who more often excel in individual sports.

The last-born child is the one who tends to be the eternal baby of the family and thus often exhibits a strong sense of security. Last-borns collectively achieve the highest degree of social success and demonstrate the highest levels of self-esteem of all the birth-order positions. They often exhibit less competitiveness than older brothers and sisters and are more likely to take part in less competitive group games or in social organizations such as sororities and fraternities.

Only children tend to exhibit some of the main characteristics of first-borns and some of the characteristics of last-borns. Only children tend to exhibit the strong sense of security and self-esteem exhibited by last-borns while, like first-borns, they are more achievement oriented and more likely than middle-or last-borns to achieve academic success. However, only children tend to have the most problems establishing close relationships and exhibit a lower need for affiliation than other children.

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