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    1. getting the most work done

    2. dividing the work up systematically

    3. each ant helping with all the tasks

    4. each ant doing what it can do best
Exercise 9: Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions.

After two decades of growing student enrollments and economic prosperity, business schools in the United States have started to face harder times. Only Harvard MBA School has shown a substantial increase in enrollment in recent years. Both Princeton and Stanford have seen decreases in their enrollments. Since 1990, the number of people receiving Masters in Business Administration (MBA) degrees has dropped about 3 percent to 75,000 and the trend of lower enrollment rates is expected to continue.

There are two factors causing this decrease in students’ seeking an MBA degree. The first one is that many graduates of four-year colleges are finding that an MBA degree does not guarantee a plush job on Wall Street, or in other financial districts of major American cities. Many of the entry-level management jobs are going to students graduating with Master of Arts degrees in English and the humanities as well as those holding MBA degrees. Students have asked the question, “Is an MBA degree really what I need to be best prepared for getting a good job?”, the second major factor has been the cutting of American payrolls and the lower number of entry-level jobs being offered. Business needs are changing, and MBA schools are struggling to meet the new demands.

  1. What is the main focus of this passage?

    1. jobs on Wall Street

    2. types of graduates degrees

    3. changes in enrollment for MBA schools

    4. how schools are changing to reflect the economy

  2. The word prosperity in the first paragraph could be best replaced by which of the following?

    1. success B. surplus C. nurturing D. education

  3. Which of the following business schools has NOT shown a decrease in enrollment?

    1. Princeton B. Harvard C. Stanford D. Yale

  4. The phrase trend of in the first paragraph is closest in meaning to which of the following?

    1. reluctance of B. drawback to

C. movement forward D. extraction from

  1. As used, the word seeking in the second paragraph could best be replaced by which of the following?

    1. examining B. avoiding C. seizing D. pursuing

  2. Which of the following descriptions most likely applies to Wall Street?

    1. a center for international affairs B. a major financial center

C. a shopping district D. a neighborhood of New York

  1. The word “plush” in the second paragraph most probably means .

    1. legal B. satisfactory C. fancy D. dependable

  2. According to the passage, what are two causes of declining business school enrollments?

    1. lack of necessity for an MBA and an economic recession

    2. low salary and foreign competition

    3. fewer MBA schools and fewer entry-level jobs

    4. declining population and economic prosperity

  3. As used, the word “struggling” in the second paragraph is closest in meaning to

    1. evolving B. plunging C. starting D. striving

  4. Which of the following might be the topic of the next paragraph?

    1. MBA schools’ efforts to change

    2. future economic predictions

    3. a history of the recent economic changes

    4. descriptions of non-MBA graduate programs
Exercise 10: Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or Đ to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions.

A pilot cannot fly a plane by sight alone. In many conditions, such as flying at night and landing in dense fog, a pilot must use radar, an alternative way of navigating. Since human eyes are not very good at determining speeds of approaching objects, radar can show a pilot how fast nearby planes are moving.

The basic principle of radar is exemplified by what happens when one shouts in a cave. The echo of the sounds against the walls helps a person determine the size of the cave. With radar, however, the waves are radio waves instead of sound waves. Radio waves travel at the speed of light, about 300,000 kilometers in one second. A radar set sends out a short burst of radiation waves. Then it receives the echoes produced when the waves bounce off objects. By determining the time it takes for the echoes to return to the radar set, a trained technician can determine the distance between the radar set and other objects. The word “radar”, in fact, gets its name from the term “radio detection and ranging”. “Ranging” is the term for detection of the distance between an object and the radar set. Besides being of critical importance to pilots, radar is essential for air traffic control, tracking ships at sea, and for tracking weather systems and storms.


What is the main topic of this passage?

A. the nature of radar

B. types of ranging

C. alternatives to radar

D. history of radar

  1. According to the passage, what can radar detect besides location of objects?

    1. size B. weight C. speed D. shape

  2. Which of the following words best describes the tone of this passage?

    1. argumentative B. imaginative C. explanatory D. humorous

  3. The phrase “a burst” in the second paragraph is closest in meaning in which of the following?

    1. an attachment B. a discharge C. a stream D. a ray

  4. The word “it” in paragraph 2 refers to which of the following?

    1. a radar set B. a short burst C. a radiation wave D. light

  5. Which of the following could best replace the word “bounce”?

    1. overturn B. groove C. extend D. rebound

  6. Which type of waves does radar use?

    1. sound B. heat C. radio D. light

  7. The word “tracking” in the second paragraph is closest in meaning to which of the following?

    1. repairing B. searching for C. glancing at D. fighting

  8. Which of the following would most likely be the topic of the next paragraph?

    1. other uses of radar B. uses of sonar technology

C. other technology used by pilots D. a history of flying

  1. What might be inferred about radar?

    1. It takes the place of a radio.

    2. It gave birth to the invention of the airplane,

    3. It developed from a study of sound waves.

    4. It has improved navigational safety.
Exercise 11: Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions.

Carnegie Hall, the famous concert hall in New York, has again undergone a restoration. While this is not the first, it is certainly the most extensive in the building’s history. As a result of this new restoration, Carnegie Hall once again has the quality of sound that it had when it was first built.

Carnegie Hall owes its existence to Andrew Carnegie, the wealthy owner of a steel company in the late 1800s. The hall was finished in 1891 and quickly gained a reputation as an excellent performing arts hall where accomplished musicians gained fame. Despite its reputation, however, the concert hall suffered from several detrimental renovations over the years. During the Great Depression, when fewer people could afford to attend performances, the directors sold part of the building to commercial businesses. As a result, a coffee shop
was opened in one corner of the building, for which the builders replaced the brick and terra cotta walls with windowpanes. A renovation in 1946 seriously damaged the acoustical quality of the hall when the makers of the film Carnegie Hall cut a gaping hole in the dome of the ceiling to allow for lights and air vents. The hole was later covered with short curtains and a fake ceiling, but the hall never sounded the same afterwards.

In 1960, the violinist Isaac Stern became involved in restoring the hall after a group of real estate developers unveiled plans to demolish Carnegie Hall and build a high-rise office building on the site. This threat spurred Stern to rally public support for Carnegie Hall and encouraged the city of New York to buy the property. The movement was successful, and the concert hall is now owned by the city. In the current restoration, builders tested each new material for its sound qualities, and they replaced the hole in the ceiling with a dome. The builders also restored the outer walls to their original appearance and closed the coffee shop. Carnegie Hall has never sounded better, and its prospects for the future have never looked more promising.

  1. This passage is mainly about .

    1. changes to Carnegie Hall

    2. the appearance of Carnegie Hall

    3. Carnegie Hall’s history during the Great Depression

    4. damage to the ceiling in Carnegie Hall

  2. The word “extensive” in the first paragraph could be best replaced by which of the following?

    1. fabulous B. thorough C. devoted D. continuous

  3. What is the meaning of the word “detrimental” in the second paragraph?

    1. dangerous B. significant C. extreme D. harmful

  4. What major change happened to the hall in 1946?

    1. The acoustic dome was damaged.

    2. Space in the building was sold to commercial businesses,

    3. The walls were damaged in an earthquake.

    4. The stage was renovated.

  5. What was Isaac Stern’s relationship to Carnegie Hall?

    1. He made the movie “Carnegie Hall” in 1946.

    2. He performed on opening night in 1891.

    3. He tried to save the hall, beginning in 1960.

    4. He opened a coffee shop in Carnegie Hall during the Depression.

  6. What was probably the most important aspect of the recent renovation?

    1. restoring the outer wall B. expanding the lobby

C. restoring the plaster trim D. repairing the ceiling

  1. Which of the following is closest in meaning to the word “unveiled” in the third paragraph?

    1. announced B. restricted C. overshadowed D. located

  1. The author uses the word “spurred” in the third paragraph to show that Stern

    1. predicted the result B. probed the plans

C. was told in advance D. was stimulated to act

  1. How does the author seem to feel about the future of Carnegie Hall?

    1. ambiguous B. guarded C. optimistic D.


  1. Which of the following would most likely be the topic of the next paragraph?

    1. a scientific explanation of acoustics and the nature of sound

    2. a description of people’s reactions to the newly renovated hall

    3. a discussion of the coffee shop that once was located in the building

    4. further discussion about the activities of Isaac Stern in 1960
Exercise 12: Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions.

Situated in the central mountains of Alaska, a peak named Denali rises 20,320 feet above sea level. It is the highest peak in North America and the center of Denali National Park. One of America’s greatest wilderness areas, the park has had limited access to visitors, but in spite of this tourism rose from under 6,000 visitors in 1950 to over 546,000 visitors in 1990. The increasing popularity of this park is prompting serious discussions about the future use of Denali as well as how to preserve wilderness areas in general.

One important issue of land use arises when parts of National Parks are owned by individuals. In Denali, though most of the land in this vast tract of more than a million acres is owned by the National Park Service, several thousand acres are still privately owned as mining tracts. These mining tracts in Denali were once abundant sources of gold, but they were sources of heavy metals such as arsenic and lead that polluted rivers and streams.

Environmentalists were successful in getting the government to require mining companies to submit statements showing the potential impact of a mining project before they are allowed to begin mining. Because of this requirement, many individuals closed their mines and some sold their land to the National Park Service. Some land owners, however, are wondering if it is better to sell their land to the government or keep it for possible future use. Tourism in this previously remote area is bound to rise, as more roads are built to provide easier access to the park. This increase in the number of visitors creates a demand for hotels and other real estate development. The economic implications of this are of interests to the land owners, but are dismaying to those interested in preserving the wilderness.

  1. What is the primary focus of this passage?

    1. controversies over land use in Denali

    2. miners selling their property in Denali

    3. Alaska building more roads to Denali

    4. limiting tourist access to Denali

  1. The word prompting in the first paragraph could best be replaced by which of the following?

    1. promising B. sanctioning C. initiating D. trapping

  2. The word arises” in the second paragraph could be best replaced by .

    1. surrenders B. occurs C. volunteers D. prospers

  3. The word tract in the second paragraph as used in the passage refers to which of the following?

    1. trail B. resort C. frontier D. expanse

  4. Which of the following is most similar to the word “abundant in the second paragraph?

    1. plentiful B. sparse C. hopeful D. absolute

  5. According to the passage, which of the following are pollutants in the Denali area?

    1. gold B. pesticides C. human waste D. arsenic

  6. Which of the following is closest in meaning to the phrase potential impact in the third paragraph?

    1. appropriate cost B. expected value

C. proposed size D. possible effects

  1. The author infers that some mine owners might hesitate to sell their land to the Park Service for which of the following reasons?

    1. There may be increasing demand for the ore in the mines.

    2. They might want to build a house on their property.

    3. They might receive more money selling their lands to developers.

    4. They might want to move to the towns.

  2. What is the author’s purpose in writing this passage?

    1. to demonstrate the changes in Denali National Park

    2. to use Denali as an example of common park issues

    3. to introduce the wonders of the wilderness area of Denali

    4. to explain the problems occurring in Denali Park

  3. Which of the following would most likely be the topic of the next paragraph in this passage?

    1. conflict between land owners and environmentalists

    2. the role of the National Park Service in development

    3. tourist needs in Denali Park

    4. wildlife in the park
Exercise 13: Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions.

Traditionally in America, helping the poor was a matter of private charities or local governments. Arriving immigrants depended mainly on predecessors from their homeland to help them start a new life. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, several European
nations instituted public-welfare programmes. But such a movement was slow to take hold in the United States because the rapid pace of industrialization and the ready availability of farmland seemed to confirm the belief that anyone who was willing to work could find a job. Most of the programmes during the Depression era were temporary relief measures, but one of the programmes, Social Security, has become an American institution. Paid for by deduction from the paychecks of working people, Social Security ensures that retired persons receive a modest monthly income and also provides unemployment insurance, disability insurance, and other assistance to those who need it. Social Security payments to retired persons can start at the age of 62, but many wait until the age of 65 when the payments are slightly higher. Recently, there has been concern that the Social Security Fund may not have enough money to fulfill its obligations in the 21th century, when the population of elderly Americans is expected to increase dramatically. Policy makers have proposed various ways to make up the anticipated deficit, but a long-term solution is still being debated. In the years since President Franklin Roosevelt, other American presidents have established assistance programmes. These include Medicaid and Medicare, food stamps, certificates that people can use to purchase food, and public housing which is built at federal expense and made available to persons on low incomes. Needy Americans can also turn to sources other than the government for help. A broad spectrum of private charities and voluntary organizations is available. Volunteerism is on the rise in the United States, especially among retired persons. It is estimated that 50 percent of Americans over the age of IB do volunteer work, and nearly 75 percent of us households contribute money to charity.

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