Sau Khi Mất Đất, Việt-Nam Mất Tới Biển


VIETNAM SUMMARY OF CLAIMS



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VIETNAM SUMMARY OF CLAIMS





TYPE, SOURCE, DATE

LIMIT

NOTES

TERRITORIAL SEA

Decree No. 30/C

Jan 80


12nm

Foreign warships must seek permission to enter contiguous zone/territorial sea at least 30 days in advance; no more than three warships may be present in territorial sea at one time; before entering territorial sea or contiguous zone, ships must place weapons in non-operative positions.
These requirements are not recognized by the U.S. U.S. protested in 1982 and conducted operational assertions in 1982, 1983, 1985, 1986, 1999-2002.

ARCHIPELAGIC, STRAIGHT BASELINES,

& HISTORIC CLAIMS

Statement

Nov 82





Established straight baselines and claimed substantial portion of Gulf of Tonkin as historic (internal) waters. Claimed territorial seas, contiguous zones, continental shelves, and EEZs for islands and archipelagoes beyond principal territorial sea. See LIS No. 99.
These claims are not recognized by the U.S. U.S. protested claims in 1982 and 1987 and conducted operational assertions in 1996, 1998, 1999-2002.

CONTIGUOUS ZONE

Statement

May 77


24nm

Claim includes jurisdiction over security matters.
This claim is not recognized by the U.S. U.S. protested claim in 1982 and 2002.


Decree No. 30/C

Jan 80





In contiguous zone, submarines required to navigate on the surface and show flag; and aircraft prohibited from being launched from or taken aboard ships. Before entering territorial sea or contiguous zone, ships required to place weapons in non-operative positions.
These claims are not recognized by the U.S.

CONTINENTAL SHELF

Statement May 77



CM/

200nm





FISHING ZONE/EEZ

Statement May 77



200nm

EEZ.


Decree No. 30/C Jan 80

Decree-Law Apr 90

Decree No. 437/HDBT

Nov 80





Fishing permits required for foreign-flagged fishing in the EEZ. Foreign ships are not permitted in 500m safety zones around installations.

ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATION

Statement May 77



200nm

Part of EEZ claim.

MARITIME BOUNDARIES

Agreement

Jul 82





Historic waters boundary agreement with Cambodia signed. Contains principles for delimiting the sea boundary in historic waters; no boundary agreed upon.
The historic claim is not recognized by the U.S. U.S. protested historic claim in the agreement in 1982.


Agreement

Aug 97





Maritime boundary agreement with Thailand (Gulf of Thailand) signed.


Agreement

Dec 2000





Agreement with China on demarcation of territorial sea, EEZ and continental shelf in the Gulf of Tonkin.

LOS CONVENTION

Dec82





Signed Convention.


Jul 94




Ratified Convention, with Declaration reiterating claim of sovereignty over the disputed areas of the Hoang Sa (Paracels) and Truong Sa (Spratly) archipelagoes; and claiming the right to undertake effective measures for the management and defence of its continental shelf and maritime zones.


STRAIGHT BASELINE LEGISLATION
Following is the text of the Declaration of the Government of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam of 12 November 1982 establishing the straight baseline system.
In furtherance of paragraph 1 of the declaration of May 12, 1977 of the Government of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam concerning the territorial waters, the contiguous zone, the exclusive economic zone and the continental shelf which was already approved by the Standing Committee of the National Assembly of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.
The Government of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam hereby defines the baseline used to measure the width of the territorial waters of Vietnam:
1. The baseline used to measure the width of the territorial waters of the continental part of Vietnam is constituted by straight lines linking the points the coordinates of which are mentioned in the Annex enclosed in this declaration.
2. The baseline used to measure the width of the territorial waters of Vietnam going from point 0 - the meeting point of the two baselines used to measure the width of the territorial waters of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam and that of the People's Republic of Kampuchea, located on the high sea and on a straight line linking the Tho Chu archipelago to the Poulo Wai Island - - to Con Co Island the coordinates of which are defined in the above-said Annex, is drawn on maps of the 1/100,000 scale of the Vietnam People's Navy published prior to 1979.
3. The Bac Bo Gulf is a gulf situated between the Socialist Republic of Vietnam and the People's Republic of China. The maritime frontier drawn in the gulf between Vietnam and China is defined in Article 2 of the Convention on the Delimitation of the Frontier between Vietnam and China signed on June 27, 1887 between France and the Qing Dynasty. The waters in the part of the gulf belonging to Vietnam constitute the historic waters pertaining to the juridical regime of the internal waters of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. The baseline from Con Co Island to the opening of the gulf will be defined following the settlement of the question of the opening line of the gulf.

4. The baseline used to measure the width of the territorial waters of the Hoang Sa and Truong Sa Archipelagoes will be determined in an ensuing text in conformity with paragraph 5 of the declaration of May 12, 1977 of the Government of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.


5. The waters situated on this side of the baseline of the territorial waters facing the coast and islands of Vietnam form the internal waters of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.
6. The Government of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam will solve with the countries concerned through negotiations on the basis of mutual respect for each other's independence and sovereignty and in conformity with international law and practice the differences concerning the sea zones and the continental shelf of each country.
Annex

Coordinates of the Points on the Baseline for Measuring the Width of Vietnam's Territorial Waters


TABLE C1.T301.

VIETNAM STRAIGHT BASELINE SYSTEM


GEOGRAPHIC NAMES

LAT. North/

LONG. East

On the southwestern demarcation line of historic waters of the S.R.V. and the P.R. of Kampuchea




A1 Hon Nhan Island, Tho Chu Archipelago, Kien Giang Province

09°15.0’/103°27.0’

A2 Hon Da Island southeast of Hon Khoai Island, Minh Hai Province

08°22.8’/103°27.0’

A3 Tai Lon Islet, Con Dao Islet in Con Dao-Vung Tau Special Sector

08°37.8’/106°37.5’

A4 Bong Lai Islet, Con Dao Islet

08°38'9’/106°37.5’

A5 Bay Canh Islet, Con Dao Islet

08°39.7’/106°42.1’

A6 Hon Hai Islet (Phu Qui group of Islands), Thuan Hai Province

09°58.0’/109°05.0’

A7 Hon Doi Islet, Thuan Hai Province

12°39.0’/109°28.0’

A8 Dai Lanh point, Phu Khanh Province

12°53.8’/109°27.2’

A9 Ong Can Islet, Phu Khanh Province

13°54.0’/109°27.2’

A10 Ly Son Islet, Nghia Binh Province

15°23.1’/109°27.2’

A11 At Con Co Island, Binh Tri Thien Province

17°10.0’/107°20.6’



MARITIME BOUNDARY AGREEMENTS

VIETNAM – THAILAND

The following is extracted from the Agreement between Vietnam and Thailand on the Delimitation of the Maritime Boundary in the Gulf of Thailand, signed 9 August 1997.


Article 1

1. The maritime boundary between the Kingdom of Thailand and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam in the relevant part of their overlapping continental shelf claims in the Gulf of Thailand is a straight line drawn from Point C to Point K defined by latitude and longitude as follows:


TABLE C1.T302.

VIETNAM - THAILAND MARITIME BOUNDARY: GULF OF THAILAND


POINT

LATITUDE NORTH

LONGITUDE EAST

C

07 degrees 48' 00".0000

103 degrees 02' 30".0000

K

08 degrees 46' 54". 7754

102 degrees 12' 11".6542

2. Point C is the northernmost point of the Joint Development Area established by the Memorandum of Understanding between the Kingdom of Thailand and Malaysia on the Establishment of a Joint Authority for the Exploitation of the Resources of the Sea-Bed in a Defined Area of the Continental Shelf of the Two Countries in the Gulf of Thailand, done at Chiangmai on 21 February 1979, and which coincides with Point 43 of Malaysia's continental shelf claim advanced in 1979.

3. Point K is a point situated on the maritime boundary between the Socialist Republic of Vietnam and the Kingdom of Cambodia which is the straight line equidistant from Tho Chu Islands and Poulo Wai drawn from Point 0 Latitude N 09 degrees 35'00".4159 and Longitude E 105 degrees 10'15".9805.

4. The coordinates of the points specified in the above paragraphs are geographical coordinates derived from the British Admiralty Chart No. 2414 which is attached as an Annex to this Agreement. The geodetic and computational bases used are the Ellipsoid Everest-1830-Indian Datum.

5. The maritime boundary referred to in Paragraph 1 above shall constitute the boundary between the continental shelf of the Kingdom of Thailand and the continental shelf of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, and shall also constitute the boundary between the exclusive economic zone of the Kingdom of Thailand and the exclusive economic zone of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.

6. The actual location of the above Points C and K at sea and of the straight line connecting them shall, at the request of either Government, be determined by a method to be mutually agreed upon by the hydrographic experts authorized for this purpose by the two Governments.




BẢNG TRA CỨU

200 hải-lý 29, 192, 194, 203, 212, 213, 305, 316, 462

350 hải-lý 211, 231, 307, 355, 442

9 nét gạch 435

Bắc-Việt 19, 36, 37, 51, 52, 53, 54, 56, 58, 60, 61, 64, 78, 79, 86, 129, 160, 181, 184, 187, 197, 199, 205, 207, 214, 232, 279, 283, 285, 286, 300, 308, 313, 314, 405, 433, 436

Bạch-long-Vĩ 129, 187, 198

Bách-Việt 406

bãi ngầm 27, 30, 174, 223, 263, 331, 332, 333, 334, 335, 336, 337, 347, 354, 358, 390, 395, 398, 402

bán-đảo Vàng 52, 61, 73

bán-nguyệt an-toàn 146

Bão-Tố 143, 370

bảo-tồn 79, 106, 118, 123

bể trầm-tích 319

Beaufort 148

biển cho nước Lào 445

Biển Đông

hành-lang chiến-lược 71

mở ra Ấn-Độ-Dương 61

sự sống còn 25

tương-lai 31, 73, 86, 141, 169, 172, 181, 325, 326, 387, 397, 441

Xưa 34


biển Malacca 35, 36, 56, 305

Bờ biển 17, 48, 140, 151, 204, 275, 280

Cái Lân 83

Cam Ranh 11, 86, 174, 356, 358

Cattigara 52, 53, 61, 62, 75

CHIM CHÓC 96

Chim Laridea 103

chủ-quyền 21, 23, 27, 28, 29, 32, 34, 178, 179, 181, 188, 189, 191, 192, 194, 195, 204, 205, 206, 214, 217, 218, 219, 220, 222, 223, 225, 229, 238, 275, 278, 305, 316, 336, 337, 340, 341, 364, 371, 372, 373, 374, 375, 390, 410, 411, 426, 432

Cồn Cỏ 122, 176, 205

công nghệ đại dương 24

Công ước 161, 212, 221

Constans 197

Cù-lao Thu 35, 150, 184, 209, 223

Cửa Lò 83

Cửa sông 56, 80, 90, 131, 133, 271, 453

Cửu-long 275, 438

Dàn khoan 137, 317, 369, 395, 397

Dầu lửa 188, 312, 313, 314, 315, 317, 318, 368, 371, 397, 462

Dầu-khí 194, 397

Diện-tích Biển Đông 40, 60

Ðông-Dương 96

Dung Quát 83

Duyên-hải 29, 40, 42, 43, 64, 105, 110, 118, 123, 140, 150, 167, 169, 181, 182, 188, 189, 191, 192, 195, 203, 204, 205, 207, 220, 222, 225, 258, 271, 283, 286, 287, 292, 297, 305, 306, 307, 308, 314, 326, 371, 443, 444

EEZ 34, 192, 193, 195, 204, 215, 226, 227, 231, 238, 241, 242, 243, 244, 246, 306, 399, 541, 542

EO KRA 72

Geoid và Ellipsoid 167

Giao-Chỉ 52, 61, 74

Gió mùa 49, 102, 127, 134, 135, 171, 172, 257, 258, 348, 415

Hạ Long 161, 445

Hạ-Long 186, 187

Hà-nội 265, 479

Hải-cảng 52, 53, 61

Hải-đảo 18, 47, 80, 103, 118, 124, 132, 175, 176, 178, 181, 187, 194, 229, 276, 316, 413, 429

Hải-đồ 163, 331, 339, 353, 413

Hải-lưu 43, 134, 135, 136, 137, 169, 170, 171

Hải-Nam 78, 140, 141, 149, 181, 198, 199, 200, 201, 267, 286, 317

hải-phận đánh cá 305

Hải-phận kinh-tế 32, 211, 213, 214, 231, 236, 238, 240, 243, 305, 359, 442, 444

Hải-phòng 57, 61, 83

Hải-Quân 134, 167, 176, 177, 178, 351, 353, 383, 411, 429, 446

Hải-sản 58, 69, 89, 90, 104, 109, 226, 299, 300, 302, 303, 306, 307, 308, 309, 310, 347, 402

Hải-Sinh-Vật 89

Hạm-đội 149, 176, 183, 187, 424, 441

Hàng-hải 39, 40, 42, 44, 45, 49, 52, 55, 59, 60, 61, 62, 64, 65, 75, 162, 164, 167, 220, 264, 268, 335, 339, 406, 407, 408, 409, 413, 416, 417, 438, 444

Hệ-thống cảng biển 83

Heo và đường biển từ Việt Nam 45

Hiệp ước 417

Hồ-Man 408

Họa-đồ Pháp 54

Hoàng-Sa 10, 12, 13, 14, 15, 17, 18, 21, 22, 23, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 33, 35, 42, 51, 62, 65, 68, 103, 108, 125, 126, 127, 128, 129, 133, 134, 135, 136, 141, 144, 145, 147, 149, 150, 163, 166, 172, 173, 174, 176, 177, 178, 179, 181, 186, 194, 195, 205, 213, 215, 218, 220, 225, 226, 229, 238, 241, 243, 245, 246, 251, 252, 255, 257, 258, 261, 262, 263, 265, 266, 267, 268, 270, 271, 272, 273, 274, 276, 277, 278, 279, 280, 282, 283, 284, 285, 286, 287, 288, 289, 291, 298, 299, 300, 302, 307, 308, 313, 314, 316, 317, 319, 328, 329, 330, 331, 332, 333, 334, 336, 337, 338, 339, 340, 341, 342, 343, 344, 346, 347, 348, 349, 351, 352, 353, 354, 355, 366, 367, 368, 389, 394, 404, 405, 407, 410, 411, 412, 413, 414, 415, 417, 418, 424, 425, 426, 427, 428, 429, 430, 431, 433, 438, 439, 440, 443, 447, 453, 463, 478, 480, 481, 482, 483, 485, 487

Hồng Gay 75

Huyện đảo 90, 173

Kattigara 52, 61

Kẻ Chợ 61

Kẻ Thị Gay 75

Khoáng-Sản 35, 37, 478

Lãnh-hải 23, 32, 34, 175, 188, 189, 191, 192, 199, 204, 205, 206, 208, 211, 218, 222, 223, 224, 225, 227, 231, 359, 442, 444

Lao 11, 28, 31, 35, 73, 90, 93, 116, 122, 135, 150, 182, 184, 206, 209, 217, 223, 238, 246, 265, 267, 268, 270, 271, 272, 278, 283, 292, 316, 358, 371, 395, 405

Lê Bá Thảo 131, 252, 482

Lịch Sử 13

Lính thủy 75

Luật Biển 27, 31, 32, 161, 162, 188, 189, 190, 191, 192, 194, 195, 199, 204, 205, 208, 212, 215, 216, 217, 220, 222, 223, 224, 226, 227, 239, 276, 306, 373, 442, 444, 445, 464

Mã-lai 52, 56, 61, 63, 73, 111, 118, 203, 214, 229, 230, 232, 238, 264, 275, 318, 365, 373, 375, 407

Malacca 37, 111

Mark J. Valencia 29, 140, 192, 194, 208, 211, 218, 221, 222, 249, 305, 360

Môi trường 24, 25, 91, 157, 162, 453

MÔI-SINH 112

Món hàng quý-giá mang về từ Ðông-phương 51

Mùa gió 126, 127

Nam-phương 63

Nam-tiến 110, 434

Nạn dầu loang 137, 140, 141, 160

Nghề cá 90, 116, 156, 173, 304

Ngư-dân 111, 123, 201, 288, 295, 306, 394, 426

Ngư-nghiệp 39, 48, 49, 91, 109, 123, 222, 300, 305, 306, 343, 354, 371

Nguyễn-Nhã 22, 412, 483

Nông-nghiệp 49, 55

Nước mắm 187

Ô nhiễm 24, 157, 158, 160, 221, 445

Peter Kien-hong Yu 435

Phạm-Hoàng-Hộ 151, 289, 314

Phan-Huy-Chú 18, 485

Phosphate 104, 295, 298, 299, 342

Phú-Quốc 35, 73, 106, 129, 181, 183, 184, 203, 209, 214, 233, 234, 283, 410

Phù-Sa 275, 280

Pierre Paris 268, 416

Ptolemy 52, 53, 54, 61, 62, 73, 74, 75, 482

Quần-đảo 27, 186, 229, 258, 265, 276, 291, 299, 307, 331, 355, 357, 366, 374, 385, 486

Quốc-gia kẹt trong nội-địa 445

Ranh-giới 23, 188, 195, 204, 207, 214, 217, 219, 232, 238, 240, 241, 246, 307, 316

San hô 174, 184, 368, 445

Sinh-vật 89, 106, 108, 109, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 118, 123, 124, 137, 158, 159, 171, 172, 252, 253, 261, 281, 282, 313, 314, 413, 451

Sinh-vật-học 109, 111, 112, 113, 115, 413, 451

Sông Hồng 184, 280, 319, 320, 321

Sóng thần 143, 150, 151, 152, 153

Tác-chiến 149, 424, 431, 443

Tài-nguyên 188, 195, 279, 298, 395, 438

Tây-tiến 432, 434

Thái Bình 17, 46, 68, 83, 85, 436, 480

Thái-bình-Dương 43, 56, 60, 62, 134, 135, 144, 151, 169, 170, 171, 181, 253, 258, 406, 417

Thảo-mộc 282, 283

Thềm lục-địa 11, 17, 18, 19, 40, 58, 175, 195, 196, 197, 199, 200, 201, 202, 203, 211, 212, 213, 214, 215, 233, 234, 236, 272, 275, 315, 316, 317, 359, 366, 368, 393, 396, 418, 442, 446, 462

Thiên-tai 142, 149, 156

Thiệt-hại về tàu chiến 425

Thỏa-ước 19, 190

Thực-vật 39, 112, 259, 281, 297, 313, 314, 418, 438

Thủy-chiến 367

Thủy-quân 338, 352, 388, 411

Thủy-sản 116, 117, 326

Thủy-tra-thạch 278, 280, 281, 313, 314, 315, 316

Thủy-triều 127, 128, 129, 130, 155, 156, 157, 158

Thủy-triều đen 155

Thủy-triều đỏ 156, 157

Thuyền-nhân 406

Tọa-độ 52, 61, 237

Trịnh-tuấn-Anh 258, 260, 296, 297, 418

Trống đồng 405

Tuyệt-chủng 97, 105, 110, 118, 123, 124

UNCLOS 162, 190, 194, 199, 211, 217, 221, 227, 231, 306, 307, 538

Vị-trí 32, 50, 51, 53, 54, 59, 63, 79, 162, 165, 167, 177, 186, 229, 230, 246, 270, 271, 324, 333, 335, 337, 368, 370, 375, 394, 396, 439

Vòi Rồng 153, 154, 155

Vũ Quang Việt 161, 162

Vùng nước xoáy 132

Ấn-độ-Dương 56, 57, 60, 135, 170, 181, 417

Đặc-quyền kinh-tế 11, 17, 19, 194, 199, 200, 201, 209, 227, 233, 234, 446

Đánh cá 79, 82, 86, 92, 127, 132, 202, 218, 238, 295, 301, 302, 305, 306, 307, 398, 399, 400, 424, 431

Đáy biển 36, 37, 47, 110, 132, 151, 162, 188, 195, 196, 197, 202, 203, 211, 214, 232, 264, 272, 273, 274, 279, 281, 311, 326, 366, 394, 414, 480

Địa-chất 31, 34, 35, 150, 252, 253, 255, 258, 262, 264, 273, 274, 279, 280, 312, 327, 345, 348, 413, 414, 415, 418

Địa-lý 22, 112, 115, 271, 348, 483

Đồng-bằng 36, 41, 42, 58, 275, 280

Đông-Nam-Á 19, 39, 40, 42, 43, 44, 46, 50, 51, 62, 109, 112, 113, 118, 149, 150, 160, 164, 169, 177, 190, 217, 220, 238, 296, 339, 405, 442, 443

Đông-Sơn 50, 51, 203, 405, 484

Động-vật 96

ĐQKT 212, 215, 251, 316

Đường Đỏ 199

Đường phân định 199





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5 http://www.vacne.org.vn/

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8 Hay 3.58' N, Kinh-độ 112.15' E. (N= nord, S= south, E= east, W= west).

9 Đặc-san Sử-Địa số 29: 31.

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17 Xem thêm websie của Ðại học Durham: http://dur.ac.uk

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25 Bài “Tọa Độ Lửa” www.hanoimoi.com.vn/vn/26/80010/.

26 Xin mời xem thêm bài “Chương mới trong quan hệ Trung Quốc-Asian”, (trang http://vietnamchinalink.com/)

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28 Anthony Christie. The Dawn of Civilization, edited by Stuart Piggott, Thames and Hudson Limited, London, 1961: 291-300.

29 (trang lưới điện-toán http://www.visabatimes.com.vn).

30 The Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center Proceedings of the SEAFDEC Seminar on Fishery Resources in the South China Sea, Area IV: Vietnamese Waters.1999.

31 Bài viết: Cơ hội nào cho ngành đóng tàu Việt Nam? ngày 25/02/2006.

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35 Matthias Tomczak & J. Stuart Godfrey. Regional Oceanography, Great Britain. 1994.

36 Atlas for Marine Policy in East Asian Seas, edited by Joseph R. Morgan & Mark J. Valencia, University of California Press, 1983.


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