Foreign warships must seek permission to enter contiguous zone/territorial sea at least 30 days in advance; no more than three warships may be present in territorial sea at one time; before entering territorial sea or contiguous zone, ships must place weapons in non-operative positions.
These requirements are not recognized by the U.S. U.S. protested in 1982 and conducted operational assertions in 1982, 1983, 1985, 1986, 1999-2002.
ARCHIPELAGIC, STRAIGHT BASELINES,
& HISTORIC CLAIMS
Established straight baselines and claimed substantial portion of Gulf of Tonkin as historic (internal) waters. Claimed territorial seas, contiguous zones, continental shelves, and EEZs for islands and archipelagoes beyond principal territorial sea. See LIS No. 99.
These claims are not recognized by the U.S. U.S. protested claims in 1982 and 1987 and conducted operational assertions in 1996, 1998, 1999-2002.
Claim includes jurisdiction over security matters.
This claim is not recognized by the U.S. U.S. protested claim in 1982 and 2002.
Decree No. 30/C
In contiguous zone, submarines required to navigate on the surface and show flag; and aircraft prohibited from being launched from or taken aboard ships. Before entering territorial sea or contiguous zone, ships required to place weapons in non-operative positions.
These claims are not recognized by the U.S.
Statement May 77
Statement May 77
Decree No. 30/C Jan 80
Decree-Law Apr 90
Decree No. 437/HDBT
Fishing permits required for foreign-flagged fishing in the EEZ. Foreign ships are not permitted in 500m safety zones around installations.
Statement May 77
Part of EEZ claim.
Historic waters boundary agreement with Cambodia signed. Contains principles for delimiting the sea boundary in historic waters; no boundary agreed upon.
The historic claim is not recognized by the U.S. U.S. protested historic claim in the agreement in 1982.
Maritime boundary agreement with Thailand (Gulf of Thailand) signed.
Agreement with China on demarcation of territorial sea, EEZ and continental shelf in the Gulf of Tonkin.
Ratified Convention, with Declaration reiterating claim of sovereignty over the disputed areas of the Hoang Sa (Paracels) and Truong Sa (Spratly) archipelagoes; and claiming the right to undertake effective measures for the management and defence of its continental shelf and maritime zones.
STRAIGHT BASELINE LEGISLATION Following is the text of the Declaration of the Government of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam of 12 November 1982 establishing the straight baseline system.
In furtherance of paragraph 1 of the declaration of May 12, 1977 of the Government of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam concerning the territorial waters, the contiguous zone, the exclusive economic zone and the continental shelf which was already approved by the Standing Committee of the National Assembly of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.
The Government of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam hereby defines the baseline used to measure the width of the territorial waters of Vietnam:
1. The baseline used to measure the width of the territorial waters of the continental part of Vietnam is constituted by straight lines linking the points the coordinates of which are mentioned in the Annex enclosed in this declaration.
2. The baseline used to measure the width of the territorial waters of Vietnam going from point 0 - the meeting point of the two baselines used to measure the width of the territorial waters of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam and that of the People's Republic of Kampuchea, located on the high sea and on a straight line linking the Tho Chu archipelago to the Poulo Wai Island - - to Con Co Island the coordinates of which are defined in the above-said Annex, is drawn on maps of the 1/100,000 scale of the Vietnam People's Navy published prior to 1979.
3. The Bac Bo Gulf is a gulf situated between the Socialist Republic of Vietnam and the People's Republic of China. The maritime frontier drawn in the gulf between Vietnam and China is defined in Article 2 of the Convention on the Delimitation of the Frontier between Vietnam and China signed on June 27, 1887 between France and the Qing Dynasty. The waters in the part of the gulf belonging to Vietnam constitute the historic waters pertaining to the juridical regime of the internal waters of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. The baseline from Con Co Island to the opening of the gulf will be defined following the settlement of the question of the opening line of the gulf.
4. The baseline used to measure the width of the territorial waters of the Hoang Sa and Truong Sa Archipelagoes will be determined in an ensuing text in conformity with paragraph 5 of the declaration of May 12, 1977 of the Government of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.
5. The waters situated on this side of the baseline of the territorial waters facing the coast and islands of Vietnam form the internal waters of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.
6. The Government of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam will solve with the countries concerned through negotiations on the basis of mutual respect for each other's independence and sovereignty and in conformity with international law and practice the differences concerning the sea zones and the continental shelf of each country.
Coordinates of the Points on the Baseline for Measuring the Width of Vietnam's Territorial Waters
VIETNAM STRAIGHT BASELINE SYSTEM
On the southwestern demarcation line of historic waters of the S.R.V. and the P.R. of Kampuchea
The following is extracted from the Agreement between Vietnam and Thailand on the Delimitation of the Maritime Boundary in the Gulf of Thailand, signed 9 August 1997.
1. The maritime boundary between the Kingdom of Thailand and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam in the relevant part of their overlapping continental shelf claims in the Gulf of Thailand is a straight line drawn from Point C to Point K defined by latitude and longitude as follows:
VIETNAM - THAILAND MARITIME BOUNDARY: GULF OF THAILAND
07 degrees 48' 00".0000
103 degrees 02' 30".0000
08 degrees 46' 54". 7754
102 degrees 12' 11".6542
2. Point C is the northernmost point of the Joint Development Area established by the Memorandum of Understanding between the Kingdom of Thailand and Malaysia on the Establishment of a Joint Authority for the Exploitation of the Resources of the Sea-Bed in a Defined Area of the Continental Shelf of the Two Countries in the Gulf of Thailand, done at Chiangmai on 21 February 1979, and which coincides with Point 43 of Malaysia's continental shelf claim advanced in 1979.
3. Point K is a point situated on the maritime boundary between the Socialist Republic of Vietnam and the Kingdom of Cambodia which is the straight line equidistant from Tho Chu Islands and Poulo Wai drawn from Point 0 Latitude N 09 degrees 35'00".4159 and Longitude E 105 degrees 10'15".9805.
4. The coordinates of the points specified in the above paragraphs are geographical coordinates derived from the British Admiralty Chart No. 2414 which is attached as an Annex to this Agreement. The geodetic and computational bases used are the Ellipsoid Everest-1830-Indian Datum.
5. The maritime boundary referred to in Paragraph 1 above shall constitute the boundary between the continental shelf of the Kingdom of Thailand and the continental shelf of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, and shall also constitute the boundary between the exclusive economic zone of the Kingdom of Thailand and the exclusive economic zone of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.
6. The actual location of the above Points C and K at sea and of the straight line connecting them shall, at the request of either Government, be determined by a method to be mutually agreed upon by the hydrographic experts authorized for this purpose by the two Governments.