-Được dùng để bổ nghĩa cho danh từ đi trước nó, tức là làm chức năng định ngữ.
1. Đại từ quan hệ thay thế cho danh từ
e.g: + The students work very hard. They come from japan
---> The students who/ that comes from Japan work very hard.
+ The shop is closed today. It sells that kind of bread.
---> The shop which/ that sells that kinds of bread is closed today
2. Mệnh đề quan hệ xác định thường đứng sau the + noun. Ngòai ra chúng có thể được dùng sau mạo từ a, an + danh từ hoặc danh từ số nhiều không có the, và những đại từ như all, none, anybody, somebody,....
e.g: + I like the ruler which my friend bought from Laos very much
+ Somebody who must be a naughty boy made my window broken when i was not at home.
3.Mệnh đề quan hệ xác định thường được đặt ngay sau the+ danh từ hoặc đại từ, nhưng đôi khi chúng bị tách ra bởi một từ hoặc 1 cụm từ ( thường là trạng ngữ).
e.g: I saw something in the newspaper which would interest you.
4. Dấu phẩy không được dùng trong mệnh đề quan hệ xác định
5. Chúng ta không thể bỏ được mệnh đề quan hệ trong câu vì như thế làm nghĩa của câu không rõ ràng.
6. Whom là 1 từ rất trang trọng và chỉ được sử dụng trong văn viết. CHúng ta có thể sử dụng who/ that hoặc bỏ đi cũng được!
e.g: -The man whom we are talking about is a successfull businessman.
-The man (who/ that) we are talking about is a successfull businessman.
7. THat thường theo sau các từ như something, anything, everything, nothing, all và trong so sánh bậc nhất
e.g: + Is there anything that we must pay attention to?
+ It is the most delicious that i've ever tasted
8. Gíơi từ trong mệnh đề quan hệ
a. Giới từ thường được đặt ở cuối mệnh đề quan hệ.
e.g: + The beautiful girl smiled. I was looking at her
---> The beautiful girl that/ who i was looking at smiled.
+ The room was untidy. The young boy lived in it.
---> The room which the young boy lived in was untidy
b. Trong văn viết hoặc để diễn đạt ý một cách trang trọng, giới từ thường đặt trước đại từ quan hệ.
e.g: +The girl at whom i was looking smiled
+ The room in which the young boy lived was untidy.
II. Non-defining Relative Clauses ( Mệnh đề quan hệ không xác định)
Definition (định nghĩa):
Mệnh đề quan hệ không xác định được dùng để bổ nghĩa cho 1 danh từ được đề cập đến trong câu. Nó cho ta biết thông tin thêm về người, về sự vật, một hiện tượng nào đó được biểu hiện ở danh từ mà nó bổ nghĩa.
e.g: + William Shakespeare, who was in Stratford-on-Avon, wrote the play "Romeo and Juliet"
1. Mệnh đề quan hệ không xác định luôn được tách ra khỏi phần còn lại của câu = dấu phẩy.
e.g: + Mr John, who is the vice-president of our University, is going to LonDon next week.
+ This church, which is very quiet, is famous for its peaceful atmosphere.
2. Trong mệnh đề quan hệ không xác định, ta không dùng that thay thế cho who, whom, hoặc which
3. Chúng ta không được phép bỏ đại từ quan hệ, ngay cả khi nó là tân ngữ của động từ trong mệnh đề quan hệ không xác định.
e.g: + He told me about Susan, who he just met at a party
He told me about Susan, he just met at a party
4. Mệnh đề quan hệ không xác định có thể được mở đầu bằng các cụm từ như all of, many of + Đại từ quan hệ
Vài cụm từ có thể sử dụng
A few of
E.g: There were a lot of students gathering at the hall, all of whom looked excited.
5. Đại từ quan hệ which đứng ở đầu mệnh đề quan hệ không xác định có thể được dùng để chỉ tòan bộ thông tin trong phần trước của câu.
e.g: +He keeps asking a lot of questions, which annoys me.
+ She passed the exam without any difficulty, which surprised everyone.
GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES
A gerund = the V-ing form of a verb
An ifinitive = to + the simple form of verb
1/ USING GERUNDS AS THE OBJECTS OF PREPOSITIONS:
(a)We talked about going to Canada for our vacation.
(b)Sue is in charge of organizing the meeting.
(c)I'm interested in learning more about your work
(d)I'm used to sleeping with the window open.
(e)I'm accustomed to sleeping with the window open.
(f)I look forward to going home next month.
(g)They object to changing their plans at this late date.
---> In (d) through (g): to is a preposition, not part of an infinitive form; so a greund follows
(h)We talked about not going to the meeting, but finally decided we should go.
---> Negative form: not precedes a gerund
Note: Câu (e) trong Britisg English có thể viết:
I'm accustomed to sleep with the window open.
2/ COMMON VERBS FOLLOWED BY GERUNDS
(a) I enjoy playing tennis
---> Gerunds are used as the objects of certain verbs. In (a), enjoy is followed by a gerund (playing). enjoy is not followed by an infinitive. INCORRECT: I enjoy to play tennis. Common verbs that are followed by gerunds are given in the list below.
(b) Joe quit smoking
(c) Joe gave up smoking ---> (b) and (c) have the same meaning. Some two-word verbs, e.g., give up, are followed by gerunds. These two-word verbs are given in parentheses in the list below
(a) Did yougo shopping?
(b) We went fishing yesterday.
---> Go is followed by a gerund in certain idiomatic expressions to express, for the most part, recreational activities
GO + GERUND go birdwatching, go boating, go bowling, go camping, go canoeing, go dancing, go fishing, go hiking, go hunting, go jogging, go mountain climbing, go running, go sailing, go shopping, go sightseeing, go shaking, go skiing, go sledding, go swimming, go tobogganing, go window shopping.
4/ COMMON VERBS FOLLOWED BY GERUNDS
VERB + INFINITIVE (a) I hope to see again soon
(b) He promised to be here by ten
(c) He promised not to be late
VERB + (PRO)NOUN + INFINITIVE (d) Mr. Lee told me to be here at ten o'clock.
(e) The police ordered the driver to stop.
---> Some verbs are followed by a (pro)noun and then an infinitive. See Group B below
(f) I was told to be here at ten o'clock.
(g) The driver was ordered to stop.
---> These verbs are fllowed immediately by an infinitive when they are used in passive
(h) I expect to pass the test
(i) I expect Mary to pass the test
---> Ask, expext, would like, want, and need may or may not be followed by a (pro)noun object.
GROUP A: VERB + INFINITIVE
would like to
GROUP B: VERB + (PRO)NOUN + INFINITIVE
tell someone to
advise someone to (*)
encourage someone to
remind someone to
invite someone to
permit someone to
allow someone to
warn someone to
require someone to
order someone to
force someone to
ask someone to
expext someone to
would like someone to
want someone to
need someone to
(*) A gerund is used after advise(active) if there is no (pro)noun object.
5/ COMMON VERBS FOLLOWED BY EITHER INFINITIVE OR GERUNDS
Some verbs can be followed by either an infinitive or a gerund, sometimes with no difference in meaning, as in Group A below, and sometimes with a difference meanning, as in Group B below.
GROUP A: VERB + INFINITIVE OR GERUND (WITH NO DIFFERENCE IN MEANING) The verbs in Group A may be followed by either an infinitive or a gerund with little or no difference in meaning, begin, start, like, continue, like, love, prefer (*), hate, can't stand, can't bear.
(a) It began to rain./ It began raining
(b) I started to work./ I started working (c) It was beginning to rain
---> In (a): There is no difference between "began to rain" and "began raining"
If the main verb are in progressive, an infinitive(not a gerund) is usually used.
GROUP B: VERB + INFINITIVE OR GERUND(WITH A DIFFERENCE IN MEANING) The verbs in Group B may be followed by an infinitive or a gerund, but the meaning is different.
(d) Judy was always remember to lock the door
(e) Sam often forgets to lock the door
(f) I remember seeing the Alps for the first time. The sight was impressive
(g) I'll never forget seeing the Alps for the first time.
---> Remember + infinitive = remember to perform responsibility, duty, or task, as in (d)
Forget + infinitive = remember to perform responsibility, duty, or task, as in (e)
Remember + gerund = remember(recall) something that happened in the past, as in (f)
Forget + gerund = forget something that happened in the past, as in (g) (**)
(h) I regret to tellyou that you failed the test
(i) I regret lending him some money. He never paid me back.
---> Regret + infinitive = regret to say, to tell someone, to inform someone of some bad news, as in (h)
Regret + gerund = regeret something that happened in the past, as in (i)
(j) I'm trying to learn English
(k) The room was hot. I tried opening the window, but that didn't help. So I tried turning on the fan, but I was still hot. Finally, I turned on the air conditioner
---> Try + infinitive = make an effort, as in (j)
Try + gerund = experiment with a new or different approach to see if it works, as in (k)
(*) Notice the patterns with prefer:
prefer + gerund: I prefer staying home to going to the concert
prefer + infinitive: I prefer to stay home than (to) go to the concert.
(**) Forget[/b] followed by a gerund usually occurs in a negative sentence or in a quesion: e.g.: I'll never forget, I can't forget, Have you ever forgotten, and [i]Can you ever forget can be followed by a gerund phrase
6/ COMMON VERBS FOLLOWED BY EITHER INFINITIVE OR GERUNDS
e.g.: She challenged me to race her to the corner.
e.g.: I couldn't convince him to accept our help.
e.g.: He dared me to do better than he had done.
e.g.: He encouraged me to try again.
e.g.: I expect you to be on time.
e.g.: I forbid you to tell him.
e.g.: They forced him to tell the truth.
e.g.: She hired the boy to mow the lawn.
e.g.: He instructed them to be careful.
e.g.: Harry invited the Johnsons to come to his party.
e.g.: We needed Chris to help us figure out the solution.
e.g.: The judge ordered me to pay a fine.
e.g.: He permitted the children to stay up late.
e.g.: I persuaded him to come for a visit.
e.g.: She reminded me to lock the door.
e.g.: Our teacher requires us to be on time.
e.g.: My brother taught me to swim.
e.g.: The doctor told me to take these pills.
e.g.: I urged her to apply fot the job.
e.g.: I want you to be happy.
e.g.: I warned you not to drive[/b] too fast.
8/ REFERENCE LIST OF VERBS FOLLOWED BY INFINITIVES
(a) Riding with a drunk driver is dangerous.
---> A gerund is frequently used as the subject of a sentence, as in (a).
(b) To ride with a drunk driver is dangerous.
(c) It is dangerous to ride with a drunk driver.
---> Sometimes an infinitive is used as the subject of a sentence, as in (b). However, an infinitive is more commonly used with it, as in (c). The work it refers to and have the same meaning as the infinitive phrase at the end of the sentence. (*)
(*) Sometimes a gerund is used with it when the speaker is talking about a particular situation and want to give the idea of "while": Tom was drunk. It was dangerous riding with him. = We were in danger while we were riding with him.
9/ INFINITIVE OF PURPOSE: IN ORDER TO
(a) He came here in order to study English.
(b) He came here to study English.
---> In order to is used to express purpose. It answers the question "Why?". In order is often omitted, as in (b)
(c) INCORRECT: He came here for studying English.
(d) INCORRECT: He came here for for to English.
(e) INCORRECT: He came here for study English.
---> To express purpose, use (in order) to not for, with a verb (*)
(f) I went to the store for some bread.
(g) I went to the store to buy some bread.
---> For is sometimes used to express purpose, but it is a preposition and is followed by a noun object, as in (f)
(*)Exception: The phrase be used for expresses the typical or general purposr of a thing. In this case, the perposition for is followed by a gerund: A saw is used for cutting wood. Also possible: A saw is used to cut wood.
However, to talk about a particular thing and a particular situation, be used + an infinitive is used: A chain saw was used to cut down the old oak tree. (INCORRECT: A chain saw was used for cutting down the old oak tree.)
10/ ADJECTIVES FOLLOWED BY INFINITIVES
(a) We were sorry to hear the bad news.
(b) I was surprised to see Tim at the meeting.
---> Certain adjectives can be immediately followed by infinitives, as in (a) and (b). In general, these adjectives describe a person (or persons), not a thing. Many of these adjectives desribe a person's feeling or attitudes
SOME COMMON ADJECTIVES FOLLOWED BY INFINITIVES
glad to, happy to, pleased to, delighted to, content to, relieved to, lucky to, fortunate , to, sorry to (*), sad to (*), upset to (*), disappointed to (*).
proud to, ashamed to, ready to, prepared to, anxious to, eager to, willing to, motivated to, determined to, careful to, hesitant to, reluctant to, afraid to, surprised to, amazed to, astonished to, shocked to, stunned to.
(*) The expressions with asterisks are usually followed by infinitives phrases with verb such as: see, learn, discover, find out, hear.
11/ USING INFINITIVES WITH TOO AND ENOUGH
(a) That box is too heavy for me to lift.
(b) That box is very heavy, but I can lift it.
---> In the speaker's mind, the use of too implies a negative result.
In (a): too heavy = It is impossible for me to lift that box
In (b): very heavy = It is possible but difficult for me to lift that box.
(c) I am strong enough to lift that box. I can lift it.
(d) I have enough strength to lift that box.
(e) I have strength enough to lift that box.
---> Enough follows an adjective, as in (c)
Enough may precede a noun, sa in (d), or follows a noun, as in (e)
12/ PASSIVE AND PAST FORMS OF INFINITIVES AND GERUNDS
- PASSIVE INFINITIVE: to be + past participle
(a) I didn't expect to be invited to his party.
---> In (a): to be invited is passive. The understood "by phrase" is "by him": I didn't expect to be invited by him
- PASIVE GERUND: being + past participle
(b) I appreciated being invited to your home.
---> In (b): being invited is passive. The understood "by phrase" is "by him": I appreciated being invited by you.
- PAST INFINITIVE: to have + past participle
(c) The rain seems to have stopped. ---> The event expressed by a past infinitive or past gerund happened before the time of the main verb. In (c): The rain seems now to have stopped a few minutes ago (*)
-PAST GERUND: having + past participle
(d) I appreciate having had the opportunity to meet the king.
---> In (d): I met the king yeaterday. I appreciate now having had the opportunity to meet the king yesterday.
- PASS-PASSVIE INFINITIVE:to have been + past participle
(e) Jane is fortunate to have been given a scholarship.
---> In (e): Jane was given a scholarship last month by her government. She is fortunate. Jane is fortunate now to have been given a scholarship last month by her government.
- PAST-PASSVIE GERUND:having been + past participle
(f) I appreciate having been told the news.
---> In (f): I was told the news yesterday by someone. I appreciate that. I appreciate now having been told the news yesterday by someone.
(a) I need to borrow some money
(b) John needs to be told the truth
---> Usually an infinitive follows need, as in (a) and (b)
(c) The house needs painting
(d) The house needs to be painted ---> In certain situation, a gerund may follow need. In this case, the gerund carries a passive meaning. Usually the situation involve fixing or improving something. (c) and (d) have the same meaning
14/ USING A POSSESSIVE TO MODIFY A GERUND
We came to class late. Mr. Lee complained about that fact
(a) FORMAL: Mr. Lee complained about our coming to class late (*)
(b) INFORMAL: Mr. Lee complained about us coming to class late.
---> In formal English, a possessive pronoun (e.g., [n]our) is used to modify a gerund, as in (a)
In informal English, the object form (e.g., us) is frequenly used, as in (b)
(c) FORMAL: Mr. Lee complained about Mary's coming to class late (*)
(d) INFORMAL: Mr. Lee complained about Mary coming[/b] to class late. ---> In very formal English, a possessive noun (e.g., [n]Mary's[/b]) is used to modify a gerund
The possessive form is often NOT used in informal English, as in (d) ------------------------------------------------ (*) "coming to class late" occur before "Mr. Lee comlained", so a past gerund is also possible: Mr. Lee complained about our having come to class late.