PhưƠng pháp viết bài luận môn tiếng anh thi thpt quốc gia năM 2016 I. các chủ đề



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PHƯƠNG PHÁP VIẾT BÀI LUẬN MÔN TIẾNG ANH THI THPT QUỐC GIA NĂM 2016

    I. các chủ đề

Những chủ đề xuất hiện trong phần Writing là những chủ đề tương tự với các bài đọc hiểu trong SGK, bao gồm:

  • Con người: sở thích của bản thân, người thân trong gia đình, người bạn yêu quý thần tượng…

  • Giáo dục: môn học yêu thích nhất, vai trò của thầy cô và nhà trường, người thầy cô bạn yên mến…

  • Thể thao: môn thể thao bạn yêu thích,…

  • Du lịch: địa điểm du lịch bạn yêu thích, kỳ nghỉ gần đây nhất…

  • Công việc: ước mơ của bạn, người bạn muốn trở thành trong tương lai…



    Ii. Cấu trúc và cách triển khai

    Thông thường, một đoạn văn sẽ có độ dài khoảng 140 từ, bao gồm những phần sau:



    1. Câu chủ đề (1-2 câu):

    • Luôn có 2 phần:

      • Chủ đề: Thông báo cho người đọc biết đoạn văn viết về điều gì.

      • Ý tưởng chủ đạo: Nêu tổng quát về chủ đề định giới thiệu.

    • Phải là một câu văn hoàn chỉnh, bao gồm chủ ngữ, vị ngữ và diễn đạt một ý hoàn chỉnh.

    • Phải tận dụng triệt để đề bài và các template.

    2. Các câu dẫn chứng (4-6 câu):

    • Giải thích cho câu chủ đề bằng cách đưa ra các luận điểm, chi tiết, sự kiện…

    • Phải được sắp xếp theo trình tự logic:

      • Theo tầm quan trọng.

      • Theo trình tự thời gian.

      • Theo trình tự không gian.

    3. Câu kết luận (1 câu):

    • Không bắt buộc phải có.

    • Nhắc lại ý chính của bài hoặc đưa ra kết luận từ những luận điểm đã nêu.

    • Thường giống với câu chủ đề nhưng được diễn đạt theo cách khác.



    IIi. Các bước làm bài

  • Khi viết câu chủ đề có thể chép nguyên cả đề bài và sử dụng kèm với template.

  • Trước khi làm bài cần liệt kê ngắn gọn ra nháp các ý chính sẽ có trong bài.

  • Thông thường mỗi bài sẽ yêu cầu từ 2 – 3 luận điểm.

  • Mỗi câu nêu luận điểm sẽ có 1-2 câu diễn giải theo sau.

  • Chú ý khi sử dụng ngôn từ, không sử dụng quá nhiều lần 1 từ để tránh lỗi lặp từ.



    IV. CÁCH TÍNH ĐIỂM

      Tiêu chí

      Điểm

    1. Bố cục bài viết

      0,40

    1. Phát triển ý: Logic, dẫn chứng, ví dụ…

      0,25

    1. Sử dụng ngôn từ: Văn phong, từ nối

      0,30

    1. Nội dung đủ thuyết phục, độ dài +/-5% (140 từ: 12 từ/dòng = 11 -> 13 dòng)

      0,30

    1. Ngữ pháp, dấu câu, chính tả (1 lỗi -0,15đ)



      Tổng điểm

      1,50



V. Các template:

    1. Câu chủ đề:

Cấu trúc:

  • Đối với dạng bài What-Why-How (Eg: What a the benefits of reading books?)

    There has appeared endless discussion over…+TOPIC,

      + this (phenomenom) is resulted from numerous reasons: LUẬN ĐIỂM 1, LUẬN ĐIÊM 2

    TOPIC + has caused a question for discussion,

    TOPIC + has always/ recently been a hotly-debated topic,

  • Đối với dạng bài nói về người ảnh hưởng đến bạn

    The person that has influenced my life is …. because … is the one person that has always stood by my side and encouraged me to reach my full potential.

  • Đối với dạng bài nói về điều yêu thích nhất

    … has always been my favorite… since I was very small,

    + this is resulted from numerous reasons: LUẬN ĐIỂM 1, LUẬN ĐIÊM 2…

    … has always been my favorite among all the … that i know,

  • Đối với dạng bài nói về ước mơ

      Having a dream … could make you accomplish wonders.

    + Ever since I was a child, I knew … was my calling in life.

    + Throughout my childhood, I was always fascinated by …

  • Đối với dạng bài miêu tả cảnh, vật

Previously, I had never known any … who/which left a great impression on me. Since I …, my perspectives have altered.

… is definitely one interesting … that I would recommend to anyone who asks me for my advice. The beauty of it is somehow beyond description.




    2. Các câu dẫn chứng

Cấu trúc:

  • Từ nối 1 + Luận điểm 1. Diễn giải luận điểm 1.

  • Từ nối 2 + Luận điểm 2. Diễn giải luận điểm 2.

  • Từ nối 3 + Luận điểm 3. Diễn giải luận điểm 3.

- Chú ý KHÔNG sử dụng các từ nối: firstly, secondly, thirdly, …,

Từ nối 1

Initially,

At the 1st analysis,

First and foremost,

In the first place,

It can not be denied that…

Needless to say,…..

It is common knowledge that….

It is widely known that ….

Obviously,…./ it is obvious that….

It is apparent that…….

Từ nối 2

Second of all,

Besides / Furthermore / Moreover,

At the second analysis,

In the second place,

More interestingly / importantly / notably / remarkably / seriously / dangerously,…

Từ nối 3

Lastly,

Last but not least,

Finally,




    3. Câu kết

Cấu trúc:

  • Từ nối + diễn đạt lại câu mở bài / kết luận rút ra từ các luận điểm.

In short,

+

for all mentioned above, … (diễn đạt lại câu mở bài)

In summary,

In conclusion,

To sum up,

not only A, B but also C are convincing / persuasive reasons for my opinion.

In conclude,

Without doubt,

Beyond any doubt,

I strongly believe/ suggest that + TOPIC + should be taken into consideration.

By and large,

Above all,

All things considered,




    VI. Các (cụm) từ đồng nghĩa

      Like/ love

      To be in favor of V-ing

      Show great interest in V-ing

      To be keen on / To find… appealing

      To be mad on/at V-ing

      To be crazy about V-ing

      To find … a great marvel/ a great miracle/ a great wonder

      Show strong believe in advantage of V-ing

      Can / Could

    To be able to + V

      To be capable of Ving

      To be likely / bound / certain to + V

      There is likelihood for sb + V

    To stand a golden chance to + V

    It is beneficial for sb to + V

    To be sure to + V

      The best way for sb to do st is to + V

      Will

      Certainly

      Definitely

      Surely

      Probably

      Possibly

      Make sb do sth

      (bắt ai làm gì)

      To be made / advised / urged to + V

      To be asked / required to + V

      To urge / ask / require sb to + V

      To stimulate sb to + V

      Let

    To allow/ permit sb to do

    Enable sb to + V

    Encourage sb to + V

    To be allowed to do

    To be involved in

    To stand a golden chance to do

    To be free from Ving

    To free sb from Ving

      TO make sb not do

      (ngăn ai làm gì)

    to prevent sb from Ving

    To be protected from Ving

      To be prevented fromVing

      Lack (thiếu)

    To be short of sth

    To suffer from the lack/ the shortage of sth

      But

    Yet / However

    On the other hand

    Having said that

    Though

    Nonetheless / Nevertheless / Notwithstanding

      For example

    For instance,

    To give an illustration,

      Very

    Greatly / Highly / Notably / Extremely / Strikingly / Remarkably

    Especially / Indeed

    Absolutely / Utterly / Vitally

    Really / Quite / Incomparably

      Because

    As / As a result of

    Due to / Thanks to / Since / Considering

    For the reason that/ By reason of

    On the grounds that

      In additition (to)

    Additionally / Besides / Furthermore / Moreover / Likewise

    Along with / In the same way with

      Many / Much

    A lot of / Lots of / Plenty of / Tons of / A large number of / A great deal of

    Various / Numerous / Several

    Innumerable / Countless / Plentiful

      Therefore

    Accordingly / Consequently / Hence / Correspondingly

    For this reason / In consequence / As a result / As a consequence



    VII. Các cấu trúc ngữ pháp cần lưu ý

    Nêu ý kiến cá nhân

      Personally,

      From my point of view,

      As far as I know,

      As far as I am concerned,

      I strongly/ definitely/ certainly/ totally/ absolutely + agree/disagree with hoặc approve / disapprove of hoặc oppose/support + N.

      From my perspective,

      Nói về tầm quan trọng

    … hold no less important role / importance in…..

    … draws much of my consideration/attention

    … play an integral/vital/essential part in …

    What convinces me is …

    … should be taken into serious consideration / account.

      Các giới từ thông dụng

    Aboard / about / Above / across / after/ against / along / amid / among / around / as / at / before / behind / below / beneath / beside / besides / between / beyond / by / concerning / considering / despite / down / during / except / excluding / following / for / from / in / inside / into / like / near / of / off / on / onto / opposite / outside / over / past / per / regarding / round / since / than / through
    to / toward / towards / under / underneath / unlike / until / up / upon
    versus / via / with / within / without



    VIII. Một số thành ngữ Tiếng Anh thông dụng

    IDIOM

    MEANING

    A hot potato

    Speak of an issue (mostly current) which many people are talking about and which is usually disputed

    A penny for your thoughts

    A way of asking what someone is thinking

    Actions speak louder than words

    People's intentions can be judged better by what they do than what they say.

    Add insult to injury

    To further a loss with mockery or indignity; to worsen an unfavorable situation.

    An arm and a leg

    Very expensive or costly. A large amount of money.

    At the drop of a hat

    Without any hesitation; instantly.

    Back to the drawing board

    When an attempt fails and it's time to start all over.

    Ball is in your court

    It is up to you to make the next decision or step

    Barking up the wrong tree

    Looking in the wrong place. Accusing the wrong person

    Be glad to see the back of

    Be happy when a person leaves.

    Beat around the bush

    Avoiding the main topic. Not speaking directly about the issue.

    Best of both worlds

    All the advantages.

    Best thing since sliced bread

    A good invention or innovation. A good idea or plan.

    Bite off more than you can chew

    To take on a task that is way to big.

    Blessing in disguise

    Something good that isn't recognized at first.

    Burn the midnight oil

    To work late into the night, alluding to the time before electric lighting.

    Can't judge a book by its cover

    Cannot judge something primarily on appearance.

    Caught between two stools

    When someone finds it difficult to choose between two alternatives.

    Costs an arm and a leg

    This idiom is used when something is very expensive.

    Cross that bridge when you come to it

    Deal with a problem if and when it becomes necessary, not before.

    Cry over spilt milk

    When you complain about a loss from the past.

    Curiosity killed the cat

    Being Inquisitive can lead you into an unpleasant situation.

    Cut corners

    When something is done badly to save money.

    Cut the mustard

    To succeed; to come up to expectations; adequate enough to compete or participate

    Devil's Advocate

    To present a counter argument

    Don't count your chickens before the eggs have hatched

    This idiom is used to express "Don't make plans for something that might not happen".

    Don't give up the day job

    You are not very good at something. You could definitely not do it professionally.

    Don't put all your eggs in one basket

    Do not put all your resources in one possibility.

    Drastic times call for drastic measures

    When you are extremely desperate you need to take drastic actions.

    Elvis has left the building

    The show has come to an end. It's all over.

    Every cloud has a silver lining

    Be optimistic, even difficult times will lead to better days.

    Far cry from

    Very different from.

    Feel a bit under the weather

    Feeling slightly ill.

    Give the benefit of the doubt

    Believe someone's statement, without proof.

    Hear it on the grapevine

    This idiom means 'to hear rumors' about something or someone.

    Hit the nail on the head

    Do or say something exactly right

    Hit the sack / sheets / hay

    To go to bed.

    In the heat of the moment

    Overwhelmed by what is happening in the moment.

    It takes two to tango

    Actions or communications need more than one person

    Jump on the bandwagon

    Join a popular trend or activity.

    Keep something at bay

    Keep something away.

    Kill two birds with one stone

    This idiom means, to accomplish two different things at the same time.

    Last straw

    The final problem in a series of problems.

    Let sleeping dogs lie

    Do not disturb a situation as it is - since it would result in trouble or complications.

    Let the cat out of the bag

    To share information that was previously concealed

    Make a long story short

    Come to the point - leave out details

    Method to my madness

    An assertion that, despite one's approach seeming random, there actually is structure to it.

    Miss the boat

    This idiom is used to say that someone missed his or her chance

    Not a spark of decency

    No manners

    Not playing with a full deck

    Someone who lacks intelligence.

    Off one's rocker

    Crazy, demented, out of one's mind, in a confused or befuddled state of mind, senile.

    On the ball

    When someone understands the situation well.

    Once in a blue moon

    Happens very rarely.

    Picture paints a thousand words

    A visual presentation is far more descriptive than words.

    Piece of cake

    A job, task or other activity that is easy or simple.

    Put wool over other people's eyes

    This means to deceive someone into thinking well of them.

    See eye to eye

    This idiom is used to say that two (or more people) agree on something.

    Sit on the fence

    This is used when someone does not want to choose or make a decision.

    Speak of the devil!

    This expression is used when the person you have just been talking about arrives.

    Steal someone's thunder

    To take the credit for something someone else did.

    Take with a grain of salt

    This means not to take what someone says too seriously.

    Taste of your own medicine

    Means that something happens to you, or is done to you, that you have done to someone else

    To hear something straight from the horse's mouth

    To hear something from the authoritative source.

    Whole nine yards

    Everything. All of it.

    Wouldn't be caught dead

    Would never like to do something

    Your guess is as good as mine

    To have no idea, do not know the answer to a question



    IX. MỘT SỐ BÀI LUẬN MẪU

  • Write about a person you love or admire

    The person that has influenced my life is my mother because she is the one person that has always stood by my side and encouraged me to reach my full potential. Despite working hard, she always made time to teach us many useful things which are necessary and important in our later lives. Moreover, she is a good role model for me to follow. She always tries to get on well with people who live next door and help everyone when they are in difficulties. Needless to say, I admire and look up to my mother because she not only brings me up well but also stands by me and help if necessary. To give an illustration, when I encounter any difficulty, she will give me some precious advices to help me solve those problems. Above all, she has a major influence on me and I hope that I will inherit some of her traits.

    - Describe the tour in Nha Trang

    Nha Trang is definitely one interesting place that I would recommend to anyone who asks me for my advice. The beauty of it is somehow beyond description. It is the capital of Khanh Hoa province, has one of the most popular municipal beaches in all of Vietnam. On my last visit to Nha Trang, I used to get up early each morning to stroll along the beach - a chance to breath in the fresh sea air and enjoy the sunrise across the water. More interestingly, another attraction that captivated me is the collection of small offshore islands. Monkey island is, as the name suggests, the home of hundreds of wild monkeys. Yen island is known for its swifts' nests. Needless to say, Nha Trang is the city in harmony: fine weather, favorite position and friendly people. Without doubt, Nha Trang is a great holiday destination, I hope to have chance to come back someday.



    - Write about your favorite subject at school

English has always been my favorite among all the subjects that i know, this is resulted from numerous reasons: its neccessity, usefulness and my English teacher. It is widely known that English is a core subject which is vital and essential in my career path. I try to learn this international language well so that I can communicate with foreigners and find a good job in the future. Furthermore, learning English well can help me read books or magazines in English. Through reading things in English, I can be exposed to various cultures and customs. Last but not least, my English teacher is a dedicated person who can engage me in her lessons and bring the passion to me. I found her lessons absolutely interesting for the reason that she delivered them in a way that I really liked. Beyond any doubt, English is an important subject which I find really appealing.

- Describe the beauty of Dalat

Previously, I had never known any place of beauty which left a great impression on me. Since I visit Dalat, my perspectives have altered. Amid the immense mountains and forests of Lam Dong province, Dalat, a beautiful town, captivates all those who have been there once. Dalat is often called the City of Eternal Spring. Flowers of all colors, with many species, the most numerous of which are orchids. More than anywhere else in Vietnam, Dalat sees flowers vie with one another in blossoming in spring. I used to get up early in the morning on fine days to welcome dawn on the highlands. Opening the windows, I had a breath-taking view of nature, and enjoyed the fragrance of wild flowers carried by the clouds, I felt relieved in my heart. In the late afternoons, I often reserved for visits to the Valley of Love and Sigh Lake covered with quiet pine forests. Twilight on Dalat also brought many pictures and sensations. The wind rustling through the pine forests, the roar of waterfalls, the chirping of birds and the clatter of horse 's hooves...all of these unforgettable memories always remain with me.



- Life in the city

Life in the city is full of activity. Early in the morning hundreds of people rush out of their homes in the manner ants do when their nest is broken. Soon the streets are full of traffic. Shops and offices open, students flock to their schools and the day's work begins. The city now throb with activity, and it is full of noise. Hundreds of sight-seers, tourists and others visit many places of interest in the city while businessmen from various parts of the world arrive to transact business. Then towards evening, the offices and day schools begin to close. Many of the shops too close. There is now a rush for buses and other means of transport. Everyone seems to be in a hurry to reach home. The city is described as a place of constant activity. Here, the drama of life is enacted every day.



- Why do we think friendship is important?

Why we think friendship is important has always been a hotly-debated topic, this is resulted from numerous reasons. First and foremost, everyone needs at least a friend to share everything regardless of sadness or happiness. For me, I like chatting with my friends about what happened every day and discussing personal problems as well as hanging out with them after school. Furthermore, our friends will be ready to help us out of our troubles. They will give us some good advice and support when we are in dificulties. Last but not least, thanks to friendship, we will have fun and enjoy a meaningful life. After hours of hardworks at school, some chit-chat with friends is the best stress-relief everyone can afford. In conclusion, from my perspective, without friends, life would be extremely dull and boring.



- What are reasons for studying English?

There has appeared endless discussion over why we should learn English. It is common knowledge that English is an international language spoken by millions of people worldwide as well as the compulsory subject of many school programs. For this reason, if students want to get good results in class, they will have to make every effort to study English well. In addition, most famous universities such as Oxford or Cambridge require students to use English proficiently. Therefore, learning English is one of the compulsory ways to achieve overseas education. In the second place, learning a foreign language helps learners understand and discover other cultures and customs. For instance, people can read books, magazines and news to learn about various cultures because most of them are written in English. Finally, learning English can help us communicate effectively with foreigners around the world. In summary, English plays an important part in the modern world.



- Do you like living in the city or in the country? Why?

Whether to live in the city or in the country has caused a question for discussion, Personally, I prefer life in the country due to several reasons. First and foremost, rural areas bring me the peace and comfort, which is beneficial to my health and helps me avoid the noise from vehicles such as motorbikes or cars. More importantly, people in the countryside are remarkably friendly and hospitable. If you live in urban areas, you cannot even know your neighbors. Last but not least, life in cities can be extremely stressful for us. Nowadays, there are tons of problems such as unemployment, crime and poverty that we have to face. In summery, I like to live in the country better than in the city as a result of all the above.



- Advantages of television

Advantages of television have always been a hotly-debated topic. It cannot be denied that television helps us see more of the world and learn useful things. TV programs provide us with general knowledge about many fileds. For example, we are able to understand different cultures and customs around the world just by staying at home to watch TV programs. Furthermore, television is capable of entertaining us with interesting and exciting programs like comedy shows or movies. This is one of the best ways to help us relax after work hours. Finally, television can make things memorable because it presents information in an effective way. In summary, television has many benefits for the reason that it is not only a source of information but also a means of entertainment.



    X. BÀI TẬP

    Write a 140-word paragraph about:

  • The use of public transport.

  • How to reduce the use of alcohol.

  • Your best achievement in the past.

  • The reason why single-sex or coed-sex education is better.

  • Your favorite shop / shopping mall.

  • The benefits of playing sports.

  • The sport you have played.

  • A piece of technology you own.

  • A holiday you have been on.

  • Why city life is more stressful than life in small towns and villages.

  • A (famous) person and the interaction between you and that person.

  • A positive / negative experience in the past.

  • Advantages / disadvantages of playing video games.



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