various possibilities of man's relationship with his world
những khả tính đa dạng của con người trong mối quan hệ của hắn với cuộc đời
to clarify his own possibilities
soi sáng các khả tính của chính mình
mô tả, biểu hiện
multiform human existence
cuộc hiện sinh đa dạng của con người
các mẫu người
various ways of life
những phong cách sống khác nhau
a true and honest altituder towards life
một thái độ thẳng thắn và đúng đắn đối với cuộc sống
to strive after existence
cố gắng vươn đến hiện hữu
sự kết tinh, tinh thể
Historical consciousness of this sort is a rather recent phenomenon in the long development of the human species; it distinguishes modern civilization from all the rest of living nature. Prehistoric peoplé, aptly called in German geshchrchllose Volker, peoples without history, lived in the timelessness of natural time. Their stories begin with "Es war einmal," which means, "It will aways be so". Perhaps the ancient Hebrews were the first people strongly conscious of history: the past history of their tribe is to them always vividly present and continuous, at the same time tribal history broadens tinto the context of universal history. Probably it is only at this stage of time - awareness that we meet the phenomenon unknown to the rest of living nature, fear of death, and, coresponding to its, the promise of eternal life, of a new birth, of survival. But we should note that the messate of comfort brought by Buddha is that of a death which will not be followed by new birth.
In the nineteenth centyry historical consciousness Cameron fully into its own and became the domenant trait of the period. The revolutionary character of the period which started with the French Revolution and the rapid changes brought about by constant new discoveries and the unprecedented progrss of technology created a new consciousness of time as a dynamic and moving force. While the Indian felt at home in timelessness an the Greek believed in the fundamental identity, the semper idem, of historical events, mordern man became a conscious wanderer through time. Excavations and the interpretation of myths opened to him new dimensions of time. Through the law of evolution everything became subject to time, and thereby to history: religion, language, literature, art, institutions, science. This new historical consciousness Cameron upon men in such a sudden and overwhelming fashion that the Germans developed it into a philosophy of its own, a Weltanschauung, historicism, which in spite of its great achievements, brought great dangers. It les, in Hegel and his disciple Marx, to a metaphysicization of history, according to which theory the historical process itself is a rvelation of the divine; the divine is no longer the law and limit of everything historical but is identical with history. Everything now becomes historically neceesary. The German philosopher, Martin Heidegger, greeted in 1933 the National Socialist totalitarian state as historically inevitable, as seinsgeschichtlich, and stressed that the philosopher, "der Wissende," must there fore avoid moral indignation as inappropriate.
(Of. HANS KOHN, A historian's Creed for Our Time)
Three aspects of musical enjoyment may be distinguished: the sensuos, the associative characterizing, and the syntactical. And thoughr every piece of music involves all three to some extent, some pieces tend to emphasize one aspect and minimize others. Thus at one end of what isobviously a continuum is the immediate gratification of the sensuous and the exclamatory outburst of uncontrolled, pentup, energy. At the other end of the continuum is the delayed gratification arising out of the perception of and response to the syntactical relationships which shape and mold musical experience, whether intellectual and emotional. The associative may function with the either. It may color our secsuous pleasures with thw satisfactions as to the probabilities of musical progress by characterizing musical events. For just as our estimate of the character of a theme or musical event shapes our expectations a s to how it will behave musically. And conversely, the way in which a musical event behaves - involves regular, deviant, or surprising progressions - influences our opinion as to its character. Thus the syntactical and characterizing facets of musical communication are inextricably linked .
The question of the ordering of values still remains. Are the different aspects of musical enjoyment equally valuable? Is a piece of music which appeals primarily to sensuous - associative pleasure as good as one which appeals to syntactical - associative enjoyment? If we put the matter as crudely as possible - if we ask " is the best arrangement of the best pop - tune as good as Beethoven's Ninth Symphony?" then the answer seems easy. But if we but a similar question using less popular work and ask " is Debussy's Afternoon of a Faun ? " as good as the Ninth Symphony"? we have qualms about the answer.
The difficulty is that, aside from the most primitive forms of musical emotional outburst and the most blatant appeals to the sensuous such as one finds in the sensuous such as one finds in the chepest pop-arrangements, there are no musical works of art in which syntacstical relationships do not play a significant role. Nor will it do to try to arrange musical works is order of their syntactical vấn đề. their sensuous - associative appeals. For even a work such as Debussy,s Afternoon of a Faun, which strongly emphasized the sensuous, is syntactically complex as complex, for instance, ad the first moverment of Mozart,s famous Piano Sonata in C major which is predominantly syntactical.
(Cf. LEONARD B. MEYER, Some Remarkss on
Value and Greatness in Music)
The revolution in art is as embracing as that in science, and relative to the life of the person, a more immediate one. We should not underestimate the extenstion of modern art as a g eneral cultural attitude. Permeating our advertising, decorating our living space, reconstructing our sense of sound, making hybrids of all the classical art forms, modern art is so pervasive an influence that even the most radical departure from the commonplace fails to cause any consternation. Has any culture heretofore found itself fostalgic for objects and experiences a decade or so removed in time but totally obliterated in experienced form? The reyolotion in primal shapes, colors, and textures wrought by the influence of modern art on industrial design in now so complete an aspect of our living that it would be difficult to single out a set of visual experiences which has not undergone out a set of visual experiences which has not undergone consederable transformatinon within a single revolution. In his essay on "the Man - Made Object" Gillo Dorfles refers to this characteristic as "formal instability." Coupled with the acknowledgement of such restless formal identily is the effort of man to create forms. Surrounded by what he has "made" and a ware of his ability to xhange its role as constitutor of reality. The shift from a denotative to a constitutive response to the world is rooted not only in modern techlology but in modern aesthetics as well.
Morcover, the ingrained dependence of the visual and auditory senses is now experienced as inseparable from the sense of touch. The new art forms struggle against the conceptual domination of our traditional patterns of response. The art of assemblage, kinetic sculpture, and mixed media make the tactile experience central. Modern in theme, these art activities reinvoke the primitive affection for the hands and symbolically restate the case for Homo faber.
No longer separate from his world like a spectator from a picture, modern man has slowly acknowledge the presence of an irreductible factor, how he formulates the environment becomes the environments itself. Recently this insight has been stated in cryptic form by Marshall Mc. Luhan as "the medium is the message." We should not, however, be so surprised at this claim, for early in our century the traditional stranglehold on the meaning of nature, exercised through figid conceptual models, was dramatically broken by the artistic revolution in the use of "media". Subsequently spurred on by the influence of the generic attitude known as "Dada," modern art assaulted the establisyhed aesthetich values: In art as in science, the obviousness of common sense was rejected as a resource for creative work. "Nouns, "things," and the consensus of meaning rooted in an "objective" framework were now taken to be but abstractions from a distinctively personalized aesthetic.
(Cf. JOHN J. Mc DERMOTT, A Radically Empirical Aesthtic)
According to the Ch'an tradition , their school originated with certain teachings expounded by Gotama to Maha Kasyapa. This event was called "a transmission of the mind outside the written text." This occurred when gotama, teaching in a garden, levitated a flower. Only Maha kasyapa understood the significance of this acst to mean that there were techings that could not be transmitted through words or text. Buddhism, according to legend, was introduced into China at the beginning of th Christian era. Around A.D. 67, Emperor Ming of the Latter Han dynasty (A.D. 58-75) saw in a dream a golden man, with sunlight issuing from the back of his neck, fly through the air and land on earth. When the emperor asked a court scholar the meaning of this dream, he was told it represented an Indian Buddha.
Ming dispatched an emissary to India to bring the Buddhist teachings back to China. The emissary returned to the Lo Yang court, accompanied by two Indial Buddhist monks and images of the Buddha and sutras. They were welcomed by the emperor and housed in the white. Temple. These monks then began to translate into Chinese a document called "The Sutra in 42 sextions".
Bodhidharma recounted the story of Maha Kasyapa and the flower in the garden to his chief sutdent, Hui-K'O . Bodhidharma, the 28th Patriarch, had come to China as the first Ch'an Patriarch. After his death, Hui - K'O assumed lesdership of the school as the 2nội dung Patriarch. There followed Seng Tsan. Tao Hsin, and Hung Yen.
After Hung's death, a schism split th Ch'an sect into the Northern and Southern Schools. The Northern School was headed by Shen - Hsiu (600-706) . This school taught the concept of gradual enlightenment based on the study of Buddhist texts and meditation practice. The Southern school was headed by Hui - Neng (638-713) and taught belief in instantaneous enlightenment throught meditation, discarding all Buddhist writtings. Each of these men was considered the legitimate 6th Patriarch. Later, other schisms developed
(Cf. KEVIN O'NEIL The Origin and Teaching of Ch'an and Zen Buddhism in China)