Forms of emphasis các hình thức nhấn mạnh a. Nhấn mạnh đỘng từ: Ta dùng do/ does ở thì hiện tại, did ở thì quá khứ

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Ta dùng do/ does ở thì hiện tại, DID ở thì quá khứ

- I did see him at the airport yesterday.

- I know that you don’t expect me to go; but I do go.

- He does wish he could speak English fluently.

Để cho Câu mệnh lệnh lịch sự hơn, thuyết phục hơn, ta dùng do trước các mệnh lệnh

- Do help me, please.

- Do be careful when you cross the road.

Trong câu phủ định, ta đặt NOT sau động từ hoặc dùng NEVER trước DO/ DID

- I know not anything about that.

- They succeeded not in their scheme although they tried very hard.

- She never does help her friends.

- I never did hear anything like that before.

Trong câu mệnh lệnh phủ định, ta đặt YOU giữa DON’T và động từ

- Don’t you forget it.

- Don’t you speak to me like that.

B. Nhấn mạnh từ, cụm từ, mệnh đề:

Ta dùng cấu trúc: “It + is / was + ……… + that…” để nhấn mạnh word, phrase ,clause.

- It was Mr.Brown that I met at the theatre yesterday. (nhấn mạnh 1 từ)

- It was at the theatre that I met Mr.Brown yesterday. (nhấn mạnh cụm từ)

- It was because it rained heavily that we couldn’t go to the lecture. (1 mệnh đề)

- It is the smoke from that factory chimney that pollutes the air.

C. NHẤN MẠNH BẰNG CÁCH ĐẢO NGỮ. (Inversion of subject and verb)

1/ Đưa trạng từ hay cụm từ tương đươmg ra đầu câu : hardly, scarcely, no longer, never, never hardly, never before, seldom, rarely, nowhere, in no circumstances, on no account, not until, not only… but also, no sooner… than…

- Never have I seen such a wonderful thing.

- Seldom does she help her friends.

- Nowhere else can he find so many happy people.

- Rarely did he smile at me.

2/ Đưa ONLY, SO, MANY A TIME, SUCH… ra đầu câu.

- Only then did she realize her mistakes.

- So big was the liner that it couldn’t enter the harbour.

3/ Xóa liên từ IF trong câu điều kiện. (Đảo ngữ ở câu điều kiện)

- Had I met you before, we could have been friends.

- Were I rich, I would travel around the world.

- Were I to know him better, I would give him some advice.

- Should you hear anything, let me know

4/ Đưa trạng từ chỉ nơi chốn (adverb of place) ra đầu câu kết hợp với các động từ chuyển động : lie, stay, stand, sit, come, move, go… ( trong trường hợp này khi đảo ngữ ta không dùng các trợ động từ)

- On the top of the hill stands a village school.

- By his side sat his faithful dog.

- Near the church lies an old ruined cottage.

- There comes the train.
5. Biện pháp đảo ngữ theo sau so / such….that

a. Ta dùng đảo ngữ với so và tính từ khi động từ chính là động từ tobe

Ex: So devasting were the floods that some areas may never recover.

b. Đảo ngữ được áp dụng với such dùng với be khi có nghĩa tương đương với so much hoặc so great

Ex: Such was the force of storm that trees were uprooted.
EXERCISE I: Give emphasis to the underlined words, phrases or clauses :

1/ I paid a visit to Ha Long Bay in 1966.

  • ________________________________________________

2/ The Socialist Republic of Vietnam came into being on July 2, 1976.

- ________________________________________________

3/ Mr. Green went to work in spite of his bad cold.

- ________________________________________________

4/ When I left for work this morning, it was raining hard.

- ________________________________________________

5/ I want to see the manager; I don’t want to see his assistant.

- ________________________________________________

6/ The flight was put off because the weather was too bad.

- ________________________________________________

7/ I met Mary at the party last night.

- ________________________________________________

8/ The words do not matter so much as the way you say them.

- ________________________________________________

9/ They couldn’t solve this serious problem.

- ________________________________________________

10/ Did you start the flight or was it someone else ?

  • ________________________________________________

EXERCISE II : Put the underlined words or phrases at the front position :

1/ He has never in his life been so happy.

- ________________________________________________

2/ He managed to pass the examination only by hard work.

- ________________________________________________

3/ I had hardly got into the bathroom when the telephone rang.

- ________________________________________________

4/ The ball went over the fence and into our neighbour’s garden.

- ________________________________________________

5/ The doctor was so angry that none of the nurses dared to say a word.

- ________________________________________________

6/ I can’t explain the situation in another way.

- ________________________________________________

7/ He had no sooner arrived than he began to make trouble.

- ________________________________________________

8/ We have made real progress only within the last fifty years.

- ________________________________________________

9/ If the union were to call a strike, the situation would become very difficult.

- ________________________________________________

10/ This instrument is not only expensive but also useless.

EXERCISE III: Rewrite the following sentences

1/ We have never seen such a clean and tidy house before.

Never before __________________________________________

2/ Rarely does she come to see me now.

She _________________________________________________

3/ He didn’t realize he had lost his wallet until he got home.

Not until ____________________________________________

4/ My father no longer works for this company.

No longer ____________________________________________

5/ So suspicious did he become that he didn’t believe whatever she had said.

He __________________________________________________

6/ Not only did he refuse to help me but he also made fun of me.

He __________________________________________________

7/ This switch mustn’t be touched on any account.

On no account __________________________________________

8/ They know little about it.

Little _________________________________________________

9/ A great castle stood directly in front of them.

In front of them __________________________________________

10/ Were I in your place, I would refuse his invitation.

If ____________________________________________________

11/ We met him just a moment ago.

It was just ______________________________________________

12/ Many a time did he tell her that he loved her.

He ____________________________________________________

13/ An enormous frog sat on the grass.

On ____________________________________________________

14/ Please turn down the radio.

Do ____________________________________________________

15/ She wanted to buy a blue hat.

She did ________________________________________________

16. He spent all his money. He even borrowed some from me.

Not only______________________________________________ _________
17. He had hardly left the office when the telephone rang.
 No sooner __________________________________________________ ___
18. I had only just put the phone down when the boss rang back.
 Hardly __________________________________________________ _____
19. He didn’t finish his work until the bell rang.
 Not until __________________________________________________ ____
20. We only began to see the symptoms of the disease after several months.
 Only __________________________________________________ _______
21. I have never seen anyone in my life drink as much as you.
 Never __________________________________________________ ______
22. A sleeping dog was lying under the table.
 Under the table _________________________________________________
23. His brother had rarely been more excited.
Rarely____________________________________________ _____________
24. If I had realized what would happen, I wouldn’t have accepted the job.

 Had ___________________________________________________________

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