Single Word( từ đơn ) for example: and, but, because, although…
Compound ( từ ghép ) - often ending with as or that.
for example: provided that( với điều kiện là ), as long as, in order that…
Correlative( tương liên từ) - surrounding an adverb or an adjective.
for example: so...that
Conjunctions have two basic functions:
Coordinating conjunctions are used to join two parts of a sentence that are grammatically equal. The two parts may be single words or clauses, for example: ( Những liên từ đẳng lập được sử dụng để nối 2 phần của một câu có tính cân bằng về ngữ pháp. 2 phần có thể là những từ đơn, hoặc những mệnh đề, chẳng hạn như: )
- JackandJill went up the hill.
- The water was warm,butI didn't go swimming.
Subordinating conjunctions are used to join a dependent clause to a main clause, for example:( Những liên từ chính phụ được sử dụng để nối một mệnh đề phụ với một mệnh đề chính , chẳng hạn như: ) - I went swimmingalthoughit was cold.
Coordinating conjunctions always come between the words or clauses that they join. ( Những liên từ đẳng lập luôn luôn đứng giữa những từ hoặc những mệnh đề mà chúng nối )
Subordinating conjunctions usually come at the beginning of the subordinate clause. ( Những liên từ chính phụ thường đứng ở đầu những mệnh đề phụ )
* Look in more details at:
A. Coordinating Conjunctions: ( Liên từ đẳng lập )
The short, simple conjunctions are called "coordinating conjunctions":
and, but, or, nor, for, yet, so
A coordinating conjunction joins parts of a sentence (for example words or independent clauses) that are grammatically equal or similar. A coordinating conjunction shows that the elements it joins are similar in importance and structure:
Look at these examples :
I like [tea] and [coffee].
[ Mai likes tea], but [ Lan likes coffee].
When a coordinating conjunction joins independent clauses, it is always correct to place a comma before the conjunction:( khi liên từ đẳng lập nối giữa các mệnh đề , thì nó luôn được đặt một dấu phảy trước nó) Eg1: I want to work as an interpreter in the future, so I am studying English at university.
However, if the independent clauses are short and well-balanced, a comma is not really essential: ( tuy nhiên, nếu những mệnh đề độc lập ngắn và cân bằng, thì một dấu phawyr là không cần thiết ) Eg2: She is kind so she helps people.
When "and" is used with the last word of a list, a comma is optional: ( Khi ‘ and,, được sử dụng với từ cuối cùng trong bảng liệt kê, dấu phẩy là tùy ý – không bắt buộc )
Eg3: He drinks beer, whisky, wine, and rum. Eg4: He drinks beer, whisky, wine and rum.
- structures: either... or (hoặc...hoặc) , neither... nor (không...mà cũng không)
Điều cần lưu ý nhất khi sử dụng cấu trúc này là động từ phải chia theo danh từ đi sau or hoặc nor. Nếu danh từ đó là số ít thì động từ chia ở ngôi thứ 3 số ít và ngược lại. Nếu or hoặc nor xuất hiện một mình (không có either hoặc neither) thì cũng áp dụng quy tắc tương tự (như đã đề cập ở phần trên)
+ S1( singular/ plural)
+ S1( singular/ plural)
+ V(s2)- singular
Neither John norhis friendsare going to the beach today.
Either John orhis friendsare going to the beach today.
Neither the boys norCarmenhas seen this movie before.
Either John orBillis going to the beach today.
Neither the director northe secretarywants to leave yet.
B. Subordinating Conjunctions(liên từ chính phụ)
The majority of conjunctions are "subordinating conjunctions". Common subordinating conjunctions are:
A subordinate or dependent clause "depends" on a main or independent clause. It cannot exist alone.
( Mệnh đề phụ phụ thuộc vào mệnh đề chính. Nó không thể tồn tại một mình được )
A subordinating conjunction always comes at the beginning of a subordinate clause. It "introduces" a subordinate clause. However, a subordinate clause can sometimes come after and sometimes before a main clause. Thus, two structures are possible: ( Liên từ chính phụ luôn đứng ở đầu mệnh đề phụ. Nó chỉ ra một mệnh đề phụ. Tuy nhiên, mệnh đề phụ đôi khi có thể đứng trước hoặc sau mệnh đề chính.)
1.Mr. John went swimming although it was raining .
2. Although it was raining, Mr. John went swimming.
*EXERCISES - CONJUNCTIONS
EXI. Fill in the blanks with these words: although, and, because, but, or, since, so, unless, until, when.
1. Things were different _____ I was young. 2. I do it _____ I like it. 3. Let us wait here _____ the rain stops. 4. You cannot be a lawyer _____ you have a law degree. 5. That was years _____ years ago. 6. She has not called _____ she left last week. 7. I saw him leaving an hour _____ two ago. 8. This is an expensive _____ very useful book. 9. We were getting tired _____ we stopped for a rest. 10. He was angry _____ he heard what happened. 11. Walk quickly _____ you will be late. 12. He had to retire _____ of ill health. 13. We will go swimming next Sunday _____ it's raining. 14. I heard a noise _____ I turned the light on. 15. Would you like a coffee _____ tea? 16. Do you know _____ she will arrive? 17 ._____ the car is old, it still runs well. 18. Do you want a pen _____ a bit of paper? 19. I would like to go _____ I am too busy. 20. She will die _____ the doctors operate immediately.
EX II. Choose the best answer.
1. Receptionists must be able to relay information ______ pass messages accurately.
2. I did not go to the show ______ I had already seen it.
3. Mary is a member of the Historical Society ______ the Literary Society.
4. Read over your answers ______ correct all mistakes before you pass them up.
5. Keep the food covered ______ the flies will contaminate it.
12 I'm not leaving ______ I get an apology from you.
A. so that
D. as if
13 I came here ______ you could give me an explanation.
B. as long as
D. so that
14 Bob is very tall ______ Bill is very short.
A.as long as
B. so that
15. I refuse to pay anything ______ you do the work properly.
A. so that
C. as long as
16. I'm going shopping for food this evening ______ I don't have to go at the weekend.
as long as
17.These rooms are very comfortable _____ they have a good view of the city.
18. _____ the teacher explained the lesson several times, some of the students still did not understand it.
(B) Even if
19. He did not join us for the movie _____ he had already seen it.
20. She could not find the book she wanted _____ she borrowed a magazine instead.
(D) so that
21. I tried to make her realize the consequences _____ she refused to listen.
22. He will show us around himself _____ send someone else.
23. _____ he was not interested in music, he agreed to go to the concert.
(B) as long as
( D) as if
EX III. Paying attention to the meanings of the sentences, and to the presence of inverted word order, fill in the blanks with the correct coordinate conjunctions chosen from the pairs given in brackets. For example:
I would like to come, ___ I do not have time. (but, nor)
I would like to come, but I do not have time.
He has not written, ___ has he called me. (but, nor)
He has not written, nor has he called me.
1. I opened the door _________ looked out. (and, yet)
2. She was not in the back yard, _________ was she upstairs. (or, nor)
3. The sun had set, _________ it was still light outside. (or, yet)
4. Do you know his address _________ telephone number? (but, or)
5. He has not arrived yet, _________ have they. (and, nor)
6. I read the book, _________ did not understand it. (but, or)
7. We searched diligently, ________ found nothing. (or, yet)
8. I invited him _________ his friends. (and, but)
EX IV. Pay attention to the expressions used in the following sentences, fill in the blanks with the words and, but also, nor, or, than, then and when, as appropriate. For example:
We should either walk quickly __ take the bus.
We should either walk quickly or take the bus.
I had scarcely sat down ____ the telephone rang.
I had scarcely sat down when the telephone rang.
1. I have both respect _________ admiration for them.
2. Hardly had I finished reading over the problem, _________ the answer leapt to my mind.
3. It will rain either today _________ tomorrow.
4. He could not decide whether to tell the truth _________ keep silent.
5. It was not only a beautiful day, ___________ the first day of Spring.
6. If you follow the instructions, __________ you should have no difficulty.
7. He is neither proud _________ condescending.(hạ mình)
8. What with one thing _________ another, it was very late by the time we left the house.
9. No sooner had I opened my eyes _________ I remembered where I was.
10. Scarcely had I heard the news, _________ my friend arrived.
11. I do not know whether he has seen the movie before ________ not.
12. I would rather wait here _________ risk missing the bus.
13. She could find the book neither at the Library, _________ at the bookstore.
14. No sooner had I opened the window, _________ a butterfly flew into the room.
15. The crowd was both large _________ enthusiastic.
Ex V. Fill in the blanks with the correct subordinate conjunctions or similar expressions chosen from the pairs given in brackets. For example: I went for a walk _______ the sun was shining. (because, otherwise)
I went for a walk because the sun was shining.
Do you know _______ the stores are open today? (as if, whether)
Do you know whether the stores are open today?
1. We recognized her at once, ____________ we had not seen her for years. (although, in case)
2. He kept reading ___________ he fell asleep. (for, until)
3. The moon will rise ____________ the sun sets. (as soon as, than)
4. It looks ____________ the train will be late. (while, as though)
5. ____________ she got her degree, she became a teacher. (After, Than)
6. We will not go skiing ____________ the weather is good. (as if, unless)
7. ____________ he left, he made sure he had his keys with him. (Before, For)
8. ____________ I told the truth, you would not believe me. (Even if, So that)
9. They have known her ___________ she was a child. (until, since)
10. I must leave now, ____________ I have a great deal of work to do. (as, than)
11. What shall we do ____________ it rains? (or else, supposing)
12. ____________ you read this book, you would be sure to enjoy it. (If, Until)
13. The door was open, ____________ we could hear everything. (in case, so)
14. I studied more ____________ he did. (than, whereas)
15. We packed a lunch, ____________ we knew we would soon be hungry. (lest, for)
16. I will join you, ____________ the weather is fine. (providing, than)
17. ____________ he is very busy, he is seldom at home. (Or else, Because)
18. We must hurry, ___________ we will be late. (so that, or else)
Ex VI . For each of the following sentences, paying attention to the structure of the sentence, fill in the blank with either the conjunction or the preposition given in brackets. For example:
_______ my warning, they went ahead with their plan. (Although, Despite)
Despite my warning, they went ahead with their plan.
________ the sun was shining, the water was cold. (Although, Despite)
Although the sun was shining, the water was cold.
The price of oranges is high, __________ frost damage. (because, because of)
The price of oranges is high, because of frost damage. (because, because of)
I went to see the play, _______ it had good reviews. (because, because of)
I went to see the play, because it had good reviews. (because, because of)
1. We stayed up late, ____________ we were tired. (although, despite)
2. They went swimming, ____________ the coldness of the water. (although, despite)
3. I enjoy the course, ____________ the professor is a good teacher. (because, because of)
4. She looks ___________ your sister. (as if, like)
5. Please wait ___________ I make a phone call. (during, while)
6. Did you hear any noises ____________ the night? (during, while)
7. It looked ____________ we would not be able to leave until the next day. (as if, like)
8. We all felt tired ____________ the hot weather. (because, because of)
9. I read a book ___________ I was waiting. (during, while)
10. Her eyes shone _____________ stars. (as if, like)
11. They managed to work together, ___________ their differences of opinion. (although, despite)
12. I left home early, ____________ I had to do several errands. (because, because of)
13. He speaks about the subject ____________ he were an expert. (as if, like)
14. We rested ____________ the hottest part of the day. (during, while)
15. ____________ she lost her way twice, she arrived safely. (Although, Despite)
16. ____________ their interest in comets, they decided to study astronomy. (Because, Because of)
Ex VII. fill in the blanks with the correct connecting adverbs chosen from the pairs given in brackets. For example:
Will you come with me? _________ I shall have to go alone. (Also, Otherwise)
Will you come with me? Otherwise I shall have to go alone.
She is kind. _______, she is rather forgetful. (However, Consequently)
She is kind. However, she is rather forgetful.
1. The work was new to me. ____________, it did not seem difficult. (Consequently, Nevertheless)
2. Continue along Queen Street. ____________ turn left. (Then, Therefore)
3. It was very misty. ______________, we could not get a clear view of the mountain. (Hence, However)
4. We had walked several miles. ____________, we did not feel tired. (Accordingly, Still)
5. She is a talented actress. ____________, she is very beautiful. (Moreover, Thus)
6. We take the bus every day. __________, we are familiar with the bus route. (Nevertheless, Thus)
7. The child was sleepy. ______________, we went home early. (Otherwise, Therefore)
8. The food was delicious. _____________, the service was excellent. (Likewise, Nevertheless)
9. We looked everywhere. _____________, we could not find the keys. (However, Thus)
10. The book is long. _____________, the vocabulary is difficult. (Consequently, Furthermore)
11. Luckily, the moon was bright. ______________, we could not have seen the path. (Accordingly, Otherwise)
12. He is old. _____________, his mind is still active. (Nonetheless, Therefore)
Ex VIII. fill in the blanks with the conjunctions or connecting adverbs given in brackets. Make sure that the sentences confirm to the rules of correct formal English. For example:
It was very hot. ____________, we decided to go swimming. (Consequently, So)
It was very hot. Consequently, we decided to go swimming.
It was very hot, __ we decided to go swimming. (Consequently, So)
It was very hot, so we decided to go swimming.
1. I have invited him. ____________, I have invited his sister. (Also, And)
2. He walked up to the door ____________ knocked. (and, likewise)
3. The bus fare is expensive; ____________, I prefer to walk. (so, therefore)
4. She is well-educated. ____________, she has very good manners. (And, Besides)
5. I would rather travel by train, ___________ the bus leaves earlier. (but, however)
6. We were born in this village; ____________, we know everyone here. (hence, so that)
7. Put less wood on the fire, ___________ it will be too smoky. (or, otherwise)
8. They got off the train. __________ they began to search for a hotel. (And, Then)
9. She studied for many months; ____________, she knew the material thoroughly. (consequently, so that)
10. The weather was hot; ____________, the air was humid. (and, moreover)
11. Please come with us, ____________ I can introduce you to my friends. (thus, so that)
12. The sun was warm, ____________ a cool breeze blew in from the sea. (but, however)
13. I have read this book before; ____________, I do not remember the plot. (but, however)
14. They were hot ____________ tired. (also, and)
15. The door was locked; ____________, we would have waited inside. (or, otherwise)
16. I have known her for many years; ____________, I understand her character well. (so that, thus)
17. We opened the window ____________ fresh air would blow into the room. (consequently, so that)
18. He is ignorant; ____________, he is lazy. (and, furthermore)
19. They visited many stores; ___________, they could not find what they were looking for. (but, however)
20. You should go to sleep now, ____________ you will be tired tomorrow. (or, otherwise)
21. I was worried; ___________, I was determined not to show it. (but, nevertheless)
Ex IX. The following sentences are incorrect, because they contain correlative conjunctions, but do not use parallel construction. Rewrite the sentences correctly, using parallel construction. For example:
He owns both a typewriter and he has a word processor.
Corrected: He owns both a typewriter and a word processor.
I prefer either to read or going hiking.
Corrected: I prefer either to read or to go hiking.
1. The train proceeded neither quickly nor was it smooth.
2. They will leave either today or they will go tomorrow.
3. The child hates both getting up in the morning and to go to bed at night.
4. She is neither kind nor has patience.
5. He is not only talented, but also he has charm.
6. The street is lined with both oak trees and there are elm trees.
7. The lecture was not only very long but also it was very dull.
8. You should either eat less, or should exercise more.
9. I am not only proud to be here, but also feel happy to meet you.
10. The town is both historical and it is picturesque.
Ex X. The following sentences are incorrect, because they present lists of ideas, but do not use parallel construction. Rewrite the sentences correctly, using parallel construction. For example:
The air was cool, dry, and was clear.
Corrected: The air was cool, dry, and clear.
He has started making kites and to fly them.
Corrected: He has started making kites and flying them.
1. We walked out of the door, down the steps and went across the street.
2. She loves singing, dancing and to play the piano.
3. The wind moaned, shrieked and was howling.
4. The music was fast, brilliant and sounded exciting.
5. He proposes to borrow money, open a store and going into business.
6. The town boasts four libraries, two theaters and there are many schools.
7. The clouds were thick, black and looked threatening.
8. He likes running, jumping and to ride a bicycle.
9. They worked carefully, quickly and were quiet.
10. The vegetables were fresh, tender and tasted delicious.
ANSWERS for CONJUNCTIONS
Answers to Exercise 3:
1. and 2. nor 3. yet 4. or 5. nor 6. but 7. yet 8. and
Answers to Exercise 4:
1. and 2. when 3. or 4. or 5. but also 6. then 7. nor 8. and 9. than 10. when 11. or 12. than 13. nor 14. than 15. and
Answers to Exercise 5:
1. although 2. until 3. as soon as 4. as though 5. After 6. unless 7. Before 8. Even if 9. since 10. as 11. supposing 12. If 13. so 14. than 15. for 16. providing 17. Because 18. or else
Answers to Exercise 6:
1. although 2. despite 3. because 4. like 5. while 6. during 7. as if 8. because of 9. while 10. like 11. despite 12. because 13. as if 14. during 15. Although 16. Because of
1. Also 2. and 3. therefore 4. Besides 5. but 6. hence 7. or 8. Then 9. consequently 10. moreover 11. so that 12. but 13. however 14. and 15. otherwise 16. thus 17. so that 18. furthermore 19. however 20. or 21. nevertheless
Answers to Exercise 9:
1. The train proceeded neither quickly nor smoothly. 2. They will leave either today or tomorrow. 3. The child hates both getting up in the morning and going to bed at night. 4. She is neither kind nor patient. 5. He is not only talented, but also charming. 6. The street is lined with both oak trees and elm trees. 7. The lecture was not only very long but also very dull. 8. You should either eat less, or exercise more. 9. I am not only proud to be here, but also happy to meet you. 10. The town is both historical and picturesque.
Answers to Exercise 10:
1. We walked out of the door, down the steps and across the street. 2. She loves singing, dancing and playing the piano. 3. The wind moaned, shrieked and howled. 4. The music was fast, brilliant and exciting. 5. He proposes to borrow money, open a store and go into business. 6. The town boasts four libraries, two theaters and many schools. 7. The clouds were thick, black and threatening. 8. He likes running, jumping and riding a bicycle. 9. They worked carefully, quickly and quietly. 10. The vegetables were fresh, tender and delicious.