77 building blocks of digital transformation: the digital capability model

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Preference stage: the brand becomes one of the preferred options for
consideration when they are to make a purchase. The preferred options
constitute an evoked set
for the customers.
Search stage: when customers plan to purchase a product, they gather
information on candidate products and the focus of the research is on the
evoked set, which is the preferred options for the purchase.
Analysis stage: customers filter and compare products to make a
purchasing decision.
Purchase stage: a product is purchased and delivered.
Use stage: the product is installed and used.
After-service stage: customers ask and receive customer services and

maintenance, and place complaints or give compliments. The after-
service stage is considered another stage for customer purchase if the
service or maintenance is out of warranty.
Digital Touchpoint
A touchpoint is where and how a customer interacts with a brand. In the
digital space, a digital channel, digital media, or digital device can be a
touchpoint through which a customer meets and interacts with a brand. To
achieve the objective of the digital journey stage and move on to the next
digital journey stage, multiple digital touchpoints can exist.
If the daily routine of a persona of a customer segment were to be followed,
the touchpoints the persona purposely accesses, or the touchpoints that are
exposed to the persona without the persona knowing it, will be found. This is
how digital touchpoints are identified. Customer interactions with a brand
and an organization arise on digital touchpoints.
Customer Interaction
A user may initiate interactions with a brand or an organization at a
touchpoint to accomplish his purpose, or the interactions may be initiated by
the organization to accomplish the purpose of the organization. The former
type of interactions is to ‘meet the wants’ of the customer, while the latter is
to ‘create or awaken the needs’ of the customer. When designing interactions
on a digital touchpoint, both types of interactions should be considered.
Different interactions can be generated at the same touchpoint in different
journey stages. These reflect a different state of a customer in progress
toward a purchasing action. The context in which a touchpoint is used should
also be taken into account.
Digital interactions are initiated and continued by delivering and exchanging
messages between a customer and an organization. A description of how to
design interactions to invoke a specific reaction is given below.
1. Define the reaction expected from the persona when the messages are
sent at the touchpoint. The customer’s reaction should drive which
messages should be delivered.

2. Define key messages to be delivered at a touchpoint in a journey stage,
considering the profile of a persona or a customer segment the persona
belongs to, the preferences of the persona or the customer segment, and
other behavioural patterns. The messages should be aligned with the
expected customer reaction defined in step 1.
3. Repeat the processes; define the next customer reaction expected and
define messages to encourage the reaction. When the next messages are
designed, consider situations where a customer responds with
unexpected reaction after the message has been delivered, and
incorporate messages to respond to the unexpected customer reaction
into the next messages.
A persona may prefer to take a few different routes from one journey stage to
another in a single customer journey. The designing of customer interactions
through message delivery and customer reactions at multiple touchpoints
allow for the design of multiple routes optimized for the persona.
Although the shortest route is desirable, the persona may take another route
depending on the interactions experienced at the previous touchpoint. As
some touchpoints allow a persona to take multiple routes, these should be
designed as an ‘intersection’ of the multiple routes, allowing them to take
another route to the same destination on the same journey map, rather than
dropping out of the journey.

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