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UNIT 15: SPACE CONQUEST





II. GRAMMAR:

  1. Tag questions:

- Câu hỏi đuôi là câu hỏi ngắn thường được thêm vào cuối câu trần thuật. Câu hỏi đuôi thường được dùng để kiểm tra điều gì có đúng hay không, hoặc để yêu cầu sự đồng ý.

Ex1: You’re 16 years old, aren’t you? Ex2: You don’t go to work, do you? * Câu hỏi đuôi có thể khẳng định hoặc phủ định tuỳ theo hình thức của câu nói đi trước.



Câu nói đi trước

Câu hỏi đuôi

khẳng định






phủ định





- Khi câu hỏi đuôi ở dạng phủ định, chúng ta thường chỉ dùng hình thúc rút ngắn của “ not”.

Ex: You were there last weekend, weren’t you?

- Chúng ta không dùng tên riêng hoặc không dùng danh từ trong câu hỏi đuôi mà chỉ dùng “ I, we, you, they, he, she, it”.

Ex: Tom would rather go out, wouldn’t he?

- Chúng ta chỉ dùng trợ động từ(đối với động từ thường) hoặc động từ khiếm khuyết trong câu hỏi đuôi.

Ex1: Your father worked late last night, didn’t he?

Ex2: Lan goes to school evry day, doesn’t she?

Ex3: Mary will come with us, won’t she?

* Note:


- Khi câu nói đi trước bắt đầu bằng “ Let’s…” th ì câu hỏi đuôi sẽ là “ shall we?”

Ex: Let’s change the subject, shall we?

- Khi câu nói trước là một lời yêu cầu hoặc mệnh lệnh thì câu hỏi đuôi có thể dùng “ will you/can you/could you/would you?”

Ex1: Wait for me a minute, will you?

Ex2: Do this,will you?

- Khi câu mệnh lệnh ở dạng phủ định, chúng ta chỉ th ường dùng “ will you?” trong câu hỏi đuôi.

Ex: Don’t forget to post my letter, will you?

- Khi chủ từ trong câu nói đi trước l à “ someone/somebody, everyone/everybody, no one/nobody” thì chủ ngữ của câu hỏi đuôi là “they”.

Ex1: Everyone is here,__________?

Ex2: No one knew the truth, did they?

- Khi chủ từ trong câu đi trước là “nothing” thì chủ ngữ trong câu hỏi đuôi là “it”.

Ex: Nothing is wrong, is it?

- Ngoài các đại từ “ I,we, you, they, he, she, it” chúng ta cũng có thể dùng “there” trong câu hỏi đuôi.

Ex: There’s so much pollution in the city, isn’t there?


EXERCISES:

Task 1: Complete the following sentences using “can” or “ could” where possible. If “ can” or “could” is not possible, use a form of “ be able to”.

  1. Nam has been living in England for a year. He ________speak English very well now.

  2. I won’t___________ complete the report by Friday.

  3. When I was younger I ______________ run ten kilometers every morning.

  4. You’ll____________ find a job easily when you finish university.

  5. It was very dark but we _______ see a figure moving in front.

  6. How long has Lisa__________ play with the violin?

  7. I’m sorry, but I won’t__________ come to your party this weekend.

  8. Look! I _______ lift this chair with one hand.

  9. Richard’s still out of work. She hasn’t _________ get a job yet.

  10. My youngest sister _______ talk when I was 18 months old.

Task 2: Put a question tag at the end of each sentence:

  1. You don’t like this program,___________?

  2. Your Mom isn’t at work today,____________?

  3. I’m too impatient,__________?

  4. I shouldn’t have lost my temper,_____________?

  5. Lynne speaks French and German,______________?

  6. That was a good movie,__________________?

  7. You’ve never come to class late,___________?

  8. You’d like something to drink,____________?

  9. Everybody can answer this question,_____________?

  10. Don’t ask me any more question,________________?

  11. Brenda and Sue are leaving tomorrow,_____________?

  12. There’s plenty of time,_____________?

  13. You couldn’t do me a favour,______________?

  14. Let’s have a cup of coffee,________________?

  15. You don’t know where the meeting is,______________?

  16. Leave the door open,_______________?

  17. Nobody was sleeping,______________?

  18. Nothing bad has happened,___________?

  19. Pass me the salt,_____________?

  20. Julie rarely goes out,______________?

Task 3: Give the correct forms of the verbs in brackets:

  1. After she ( get)____________ married, she (move)____________ to England.

  2. How long (you, work)________________ here?

  3. I (not see)_____________ him since 1930.

  4. I ( meet)____________ her for the past three years.

  5. When I arrive there next week, I (phone)______________ you.

  6. So far she (write)__________ six short stories.

  7. When I came there, all the students ( already, go)_______________ out.

  8. When Tom came, I (cook)_____________.

  9. Who (you, talk)__________________ to when I arrived?

  10. He (play)____________ football when he was six.

  11. Up to now, she ( finish)____________ her report.

  12. I met him while I (look)___________ for Tom.



UNIT 16

II. GRAMMAR: PASSIVE VOICE

- It is said that

- People say that

*
Active: S1 + V1 + (that) + S2 + V2 + O2 ….

Passive: - It + be + V3/ed + (that) + S2 + V2 + O2 ….

- S2 + be + V3/ed + to V1/ to have + V3/ed
Form:

Ex1: People say that he is a famous doctor.

=> It

=> He


Ex2: They thought that Mary had gone away.

=> It


=> Mary

* Note:


- Nếu hành động trong mệnh đề sau ( mệnh đề thứ 2) xảy ra trước hành động trong mệnh đề chính ( mênh đề thứ 1)(_V1 và V2 _____________________________________) ta dùng cấu trúc bị động ở ví dụ 2:


Active: S1 + V1 + (that) + S2 + V2 + O2 ….

Passive: - It + be + V3/ed + (that) + S2 + V2 + O2 ….

- S2 + be + V3/ed + to have + V3/ed

- Nếu hành động trong mệnh đề sau ( mệnh đề thứ 2) xảy ra đồng thời với hành động trong mệnh đề chính ( mênh đề thứ 1)(_________________________________) ta dùng cấu trúc bị động ở ví dụ 1:




Active: S1 + V1 + (that) + S2 + V2 + O2 ….

Passive: - It + be + V3/ed + (that) + S2 + V2 + O2 ….

- S2 + be + V3/ed + to V1


Ex3: They said Tom was in England.

=> It was said that Tom was in England.

=> Tom was said to be in England.

Ex4: They said Mary was living in London.

=> It

=> Mary was said to be living in London.



- Nếu hành động trong mệnh đề sau ( mệnh đề thứ 2) xảy ra sau hành động trong mệnh đề chính ( mênh đề thứ 1)(_________________________________) ta dùng cấu trúc bị động ở ví dụ 1:


Active: S1 + V1 + (that) + S2 + V2 + O2 ….

Passive: - It + be + V3/ed + (that) + S2 + V2 + O2 ….

- S2 + be + V3/ed + to V1

Ex5: They expect that the price of oil will go down next month.

=> It

=> The price of the oil is expected to go down next month.



* Các động từ thường gặp trong cấu trúc bị đông trên: say, report, believe, think, understand, suppose, rumour, hope, expect, assume, predict, acknowledge.

EXERCISES:

I. Rewrite the following sentences using passive voice:

  1. People believe that 13 is an unlucky number.

=> It_____________________________________.

=> 13____________________________________.



  1. They rumoured the man was still living.

=> It_____________________________________.

=> The man_______________________________.



  1. They declared that she won the competition.

=> It _____________________________________.

=> She____________________________________.



  1. They know that English is an international language.

=> It________________________________________.

=> English___________________________________.



  1. They say that John is the brightest student in class.

=> It________________________________________.

=> John______________________________________.



  1. They reported the President had suffered a heart attack.

=> It_________________________________________.

=> The President________________________________.



  1. They think that he has died a natural death.

=> He________________________________________.

=> It_________________________________________.



  1. They reported that the troops were coming.

=> It_________________________________________.

=> The troops__________________________________.



  1. People believe that the earth stood still.

=> It_________________________________________.

=> The earth__________________________________.



  1. People believe that the president works 12 hours a day.

=> It________________________________________.

=> The president_______________________________.



  1. People expect the strike will end soon.

=> It_________________________________________.

=> The strike__________________________________.



  1. People say that there’s a secret tunnel between the two houses.

=> It__________________________________________.

=> There_______________________________________.



  1. People think that the robbers were driving a red car.

=> It__________________________________________.

=> The robbers__________________________________.



  1. People believed that the monument was over 2000 years.

=> It__________________________________________.

=> The monument_______________________________.



  1. People report that the film star was shouting at reporters.

=> It__________________________________________.

=> The film star_______________________________








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