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Khi đại từ quan hệ làm tân ngữ trong MĐQH có giới hạn, ta có thể rút gọn đại từ qh( who, whom, that, which). Tuy nhiên khi trước đại từ qh có giới từ ta không được rút gọn đại từ quan hệ.

Trong mệnh đề quan hệ có giới từ thì giới từ có 2 vị trí đứng:

Giới từ đứng trước đại từ quan hệ hoặc giới từ đứng sau động từ.

*Lưu ý: Giới từ không đứng trước đại từ quan hệ “ who và that”

- Khi giới từ là thành phần của cụm động từ thì không thể đem giới từ ra trước “whom, which, whose”

Ex: This is the book. I’m looking for it.

=> This is the book

- Giới từ “ WITHOUT”không được đặt sau động từ mà phải đặt trước đại từ quan hệ.


Một số từ chỉ số lượng kèm theo giới từ được dùng trong MĐQH không giới hạn: most,all, some, a few, many, much, more, neither, any, either, both, half, each, one, two…+ of whom/which

Ex: They have four children. All of them are married.

=> They have four children, all of whom are married.

I.Use a Relative Pronoun preceded by a preposition to combine each pair of the sentences below:

  1. The teacher is Mr Pike. We studied with him last year.


  1. The problem has been discussed in class. We are very interested in it.


  1. Many diseases are no longer dangerous. People died of them years ago.


  1. Do you see my pen? I have just written the lesson with it.


  1. I like standing at the windows. I can see the park from this window.


  1. We are crossing the meadow. We flew kites over it in our childhood.


  1. They are repairing the tubes. Water is brought into our house through the tubes.


  1. In the middle of the village there is a well. The villagers take water from this well to drink.


  1. The middle-aged man is the director. My father is talking to him.


  1. The boy is my cousin. You made fun of him.


II. Choose the best answer:

  1. Karen is the schoolgirl about ______ I told you.

A. who B. whom C. that D. which

  1. The topic in_______ Mary is interested is Chinese cookery.

A. who B. which C. that D. whose

  1. Do you know the man ______ Ted shares a room?

A. whom B. that C. with whom D. who

  1. Is this the article about ______ you are talking?

A. whom B. that C. which D. whose

  1. Mr. Reese, to______ we sent the letter, hasn’t given us his reply.

A. whose B. that C. who D. whom

  1. I’d like to see my new laptop, for_______ I paid $ 2,300.

A. that B. which C. whose D. who

  1. They have four children, all of_______ are married.

A. who B. whose C. that D. whom

  1. We’ve taken many tests, most of______ were difficult.

A. which B. whom C. that D. who

  1. That is an opinion with __________ we cannot agree.

A. which B. whom C. that D. whose

  1. The shop to________ they went was on Le Loi Street.

A. whom B. who C. which D. that

  1. Laws have been introduced to prohibit the killing of endangered animals.

A. advised B. decreased C. ban D. encouraged

  1. The World Wild Funds is working to protect and save the forests that are in ________.

A. danger B. interest C. encouragement D. consequence

  1. Garbage is considered to be some kind of _______.

A. pollute B. pollutants C. pollution D. polluting

  1. We should do something immediately to save many kinds of rare animals ________ extinction.

A. away B. from C. in D. with

  1. Many organizations have been set up and funds have been raised.

A. established B. collapsed C. delayed D. decreased

III. Choose the word which is stressed differently from the rest:

  1. A. endanger B. disappear C. prohibit D. destruction

  2. A. extinct B. human C. species D. planet

  3. A. respect B. effort C. exit D. supply

  4. A. condition B.pollutant C. however D. influence

  5. A. action B. habit C. danger D. survive

IV. Choose the word which has the underlined part pronounced differently from the rest:

  1. A. small B. supply C. sure D. species

  2. A. swimmer B. sword C. swallow D. swam

  3. A. parks B. animals C. planets D. environments

  4. A. forest B. exist C. busy D. establish

  5. A. suggest B. disappear C. scientist D. raise


RELATIVE CLAUSES REPLACED BY PARTICIPLES AND TO INFINITIVES ( MĐQH được thay thế (rút gọn) thành “ cụm phân từ” và dạng “ to + V nguyên mẫu)

  1. MĐQH có thể được rút gọn bằng cách dùng “ participle phrases” ( cụm phân từ). Có 2 loại participle phrases:

- Present participle phrases là các cụm từ bắt đầu bằng present participle ( V-ing)

- Past participle phrases là các cụm từ bắt đầu bằng past participle ( V3)

* Cách rút g ọn đại từ quan hệ bằng “ V-ing/ V3-ed”

1. Relative clauses replaced by “ V-ing” ( MÑQH ñöôïc ruùt goïn baèng V-ing”

Nếu _____________ trong MĐQH ở thể_____________, ta duøng V-ing thay cho mệnh ñeà ñoù (boû_____________ vaø______________, ñöa _________________________ roài theâm___________.)

Ex1: The man who is sitting next to you is my uncle.


Ex2: Do you know the boy who broke the windows last night?


2.. Relative clauses replaced by “ V3/ V-ed” ( MÑQH ñöôïc ruùt goïn baèng V3/V-ed”:

Nếu _____________ trong MĐQH ở thể_____________, ta duøng V3/V-ed thay cho mệnh ñeà ñoù ((boû_____________ vaø______________, baét ñaàu cuïm töø baèng V3/ V-ed)

Ex1: The books which were written by To Hoai are interesting.


Ex2: The house which is being built now belongs to Mr. Pike.


B. Relative clauses replaced by “ to-infinitive” ( MÑQH ñöôïc ruùt goïn baèng to V1)

- Khi danh töø ñöùng tröôùc ñaïi töø quan heä coù “ the first, the second, the next, the last, the only…” vaø sau caáu truùc so saùnh baäc nhaát, ta coù theå ruùt goïn MÑQH baèng “ to – V1)

Ex1: Nam is the only student who gave the correct answer.


Ex2: Alice was the second applicant who was interviewed.


Ex3: William Pitt was the youngest person who became Prime Minister.


* Chúng ta cũng có thể dùng “ to –V1” để thay thế khi MĐQH có ý nghĩa chỉ mục đích hoặc sự cho phép.

Ex: I think she had something that she wanted to say.


Ex: I have a lot of work that I must do.



I.Reduce relative clauses to phrases ( V-ing, V3/V-ed/ to V)

  1. The man who is standing there is a clown.


  1. The envelop which lies on the table has no stamp on it.


  1. Benzene, which was discovered by Faraday, became the starting point in the manufacture of many dyes, perfumes and explosives.


  1. My grandmother, who is old and sick, never goes out of the house.


  1. The students don’t know to do the exercises which were given by the teacher yesterday.


  1. The diagrams which were made by young Faraday were sent to Sir Humphry Davy at the end of the year 1812.


  1. The man who lives next door to me is a well-known writer.


  1. All students who don’t hand in their papers will fail in the exam.


  1. I saw many houses that were destroyed by the storm.


  1. The street which leads to the school is very wide.


  1. We had a river in which we could swim.


  1. The child would be happier if he had someone that he could play with.


  1. I have some letters that I must write.


  1. If she had a family that she had to cook for, she would be more interested.


  1. I haven’t got anyone that I can go with.


  1. He was the second man who was killed in this way.


  1. The man who was interviewed was entirely unsuitable.


  1. Who was the first person who left the office yesterday?


  1. John’s wife was the only person who realized the danger.


  1. She simply loves parties. She’s always the first who comes and the last who goes.


II. Choose the best answer:

  1. They are against nuclear power because they think of the nuclear disaster that happened in Japan in World War II.

A. happened B. that happening C. happening D. to happen

  1. The heat that is released from the sun is infinite.

A. to release B. to be released C. that release D. released

  1. I saw many houses that were destroyed by the storm.

A. were destroyed B. destroyed C. to be destroyed D. destroying

  1. The candidates who are sitting for the exam are all from Vietnam.

A. who sitting B. are sitting C. sitting D. to sit

  1. Mr Jackson, who teaches my son, is my neighbor.

A. to teach B. teaching C. taught D. is teaching

  1. The house which is being painted now is mine.

A. being painted B. painting C. to be painted D. painted

  1. The story which has been told recently is true.

A. to have been told B. told C. to be told D. which told

  1. You are the last person who saw her alive.

A. seeing B. to be seen C. to see D. saw

  1. This is the second man who was killed in that way.

A. to kill B. killed C. killing D. to be killed

  1. She was the first student that was given a present.

A. given B. to be given C. giving D. given

  1. He was the third man who was caught last night.

A. to catch B. caught C. to be caught D. catching

  1. The second person that we must see is Mrs. Dove.

A. seeing B. to see C. saw D. to be seen


Ex1: The woman is my mother. You met her last night.

=> The woman

=> The woman

Ex2: The book was very interesting. I bought it yesterday.

=> The book

=> The book

* Cách lược bỏ đại từ quan hệ “ who/ whom/ which/that”:

- Khi đại từ quan hệ “________________” làm _______________ trong MĐQH______________ (_________________)

- Khi ________ đại từ quan hệ______________________.


* PRONUNCIATION: / ed/ & / s/

1. Cách phát âm các động từ tận cùng là “ed”:

2. Cách phát âm các động từ tận cùng là “s”:


* Cleft Sentences: ( Câu chẻ)

- subject focus

- Object focus

- Adverbial focus

Cleft sentences là cách dùng “ it + be + mệnh đề quan hệ để nhấn mạnh”.

- Nếu chủ ngữ chỉ người ta dùng “who/ that”

- Nếu các chủ ngữ khác ta dùng “ that”

1. Subject focus:

Ex1: Tracy gave me this book.


Ex2: The TV program gives me a headache.


Ex3: Sarah’s husband died on Friday.

2. Object focus:

Ex1: The boy hit the dog in the garden.=>

Ex2: I’m studying English grammar. =>

3. Adverbial focus:

Ex1: Sarah’s husband died on Friday. =>

Ex2: The boy hit the dog in the garden.=>

I.Rewrite the following sentences using cleft sentences:

  1. The neighbor told them about it.

→ It____________________________________________________.

  1. My friend came to see me last night.

→ It ____________________________________________________.

  1. That boy scored the goal for his team.

→ It ____________________________________________________.

  1. The dog grabbed at the piece of meat and ran away.

→ It ____________________________________________________.

  1. The strong wind blew the roof off.

  1. The woman answered the man rudely.

  1. The boy played ping pong the whole afternoon.

  1. The girl gave the boy a special gift on his birthday.

  1. The police arrested the man at the railway station.

  1. He borrowed the money from Loan.

  1. He bought the book from that corner shop.

  1. He got married when he was 26.

  1. They were having a barbecue in the park.

  1. I met him on the way to school.

  1. They often had parties on weekends.

  1. Kathy bought her husband an anniversary gift at a sports shop.

II. Give the correct form of the words in brackets:

  1. I have no _____________of French. (know)

  2. There are many__________ kinds of entertainment. (vary)

  3. He left for a ____________ of reason. (vary)

  4. There are some_____________ between Tom and Peter. (differ)

  5. She needed only one more stamp to complete her_____________. (collect)



* Conjunctions: both….and, not only….but also, either…or, neither….nor

* Cleft Sentences in the passive: ( Câu chẻ ở thể bị động)

1. Conjunctions: both….and, not only….but also, either…or, neither….nor

Ex1: Both Mark and Carol (be)_______________ good at dancing.

Ex2: Not only the children but also the teacher (be)___________ interested in the subject.

Ex3: Either you or your brother (be)_________ responsible for this mistake.

Ex4: Neither the soldiers or the officer was alive.
* Form:

- Both + _______ + and + __________ + V(__________)

- Either _______ or + __________ + V(__________)

- Neither _______ + nor + __________ + V(__________)

- Not only _______ + but also + __________ + V(__________)

2. Cleft Sentences in the passive: ( Câu chẻ ở thể bị động)

Ex1: The boy hit the dog in the garden.

=> It was ___________________________________________________.

Ex2: The girl gave the boy a special gift on his birthday.

=> It was____________________________________________________.

I. Rewrite the following sentences using the cues below:

  1. Jane owns a shop. She owns a restaurant.

→ Jane owns both .

  1. Helen likes cats. Mary likes cats.

→ Both Helen .

  1. She’s at the post office. She’s at the airport.

→ She’s either______________________________________________________.

  1. Paul’s at home. Paul’s at the gym.

→ Paul’s either______________________________________________________.

  1. Chris didn’t have time to take a holiday. Sheila didn’t have time to take a holiday.

→ Neither Chris_____________________________________________________.

  1. David doesn’t play tennis. David doesn’t play table-tennis.

→ David plays neither________________________________________________.

  1. Nam’s handsome. Nam’s intelligent.

→ Nam’s not only___________________________________________________.

  1. Mai plays the guitar well. Mai dances beautifully.

→ Mai not only plays_________________________________________________.

  1. Mike enjoys playing the guitar. Peter also enjoys playing it.

→ Both Mike________________________________________________________.

  1. He took her to a restaurant. He bought her a necklace, too.

→ He not only_______________________________________________________.

  1. They didn’t come. They didn’t phone, either.

→ They neither______________________________________________________.

  1. Bob will get a promotion. Ted will get a promotion.

→ Either Bob________________________________________________________.

  1. She couldn’t read. She couldn’t write.

→ She could neither___________________________________________________.

  1. He drives slowly. He also drives carefully.

→ He drives both_____________________________________________________.

  1. The secretary didn’t have the file. The accountant didn’t have the file.

→ Neither the secretary________________________________________________.

II. Rewrite the following sentences using cleft sentences:

  1. The woman answered the man rudely.

→ It

  1. She put her hat on the table.

  1. He is talking to Tom.

  1. Peter won the gold medal in the competition.

  1. She has studied English for five years.

  1. She won’t do her homework.

  1. I bought the house last month.

III. Give the correct form of the word in brackets:

  1. I go to the zoo for my______________. ( recreate)

  2. English is of great_____________. (important)

  3. My Tom sings more________________ than Peter. (beauty)

  4. My class is _____________ from your class. (differ)

  5. I need more stamps for my______________. (collect)

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