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Selection 5


the effect

hiệu quả

this scientilic revolution

cuộc cách mạng khoa học này

sweeping

triết để

significantly

một cách đấy ý nghĩa

behavioral and social sciences

những môn khoa học xã hội và hành vi học

psychology

tâm lý học

statistics - ridden

cũng đầy rẫy những bản thống kê = cũng bị chi phối mạnh mẽ bởi môn thống kê học

prone to predictions

có khuynh hướng thiên về những dự đoán

controlled experiments

những cuộc thí nghiệm có kiểm soạt chặt chẽ

natural sciences

khoa học tự nhiên

echoing

lập lại, bắt chước

aping

bắt chước một cách nô lệ

methodologies

phương pháp luận

anthropology

nhân chủng học

economics

kinh tế học

history

sử học

political science

chính trị học

popularity

sự phổ thông

psychological jargon

các đặc ngữ chuyên môn của ngành tâm lý học

universal application

sự áp dụng phổ biến

psychological tests

các trắc nghiệm tâm lý

measurements

định lượng, đo lương

the continued imaginative hold on the public

sự ám ảnh đầy tưởng tượng vẫn còn tiếp tục

mind

tác động đầu óc của quần chúng

psychoanalyst

nhà phân tâm học

psychiatrist

nhà tâm bệnh học

symptoms

các triệu chứng

impact

ảnh hưởng

consciousness

ý thức

reflective

phản ánh

loose thinking pseudo- science

một loại khoa học giả tạo, suy nghĩ hời hợt, nông cạn

pervasive

tràn lan, phổ biến

sick

bệnh hoạn

introspection

phép nội quan (tự mình quan sát tâm lý của mình)

trenmendously useful in- sights

những trí kiến cực kỳ hữu ích

Freudian psychology

tâm lý học của Fereud

to yield

ban cho

animaginative thought

một cơ cấu tư duy đầy sáng tạo

tointerpret

giải thích

in an exciting new way

một cách mới mẻ đầy phấn khởi

discreetly used

được sử dụng một cách thận trọng

aptitude tests

trắc nghiệm năng khiếu

personality indexes

chỉ số nhân cách

intelligence quotients

thông số thông minh

helpful clues

các chỉ dẫn có ích lợi

eager for self under standing

khao khát muốn hiểu biết về mình

to parallel

tương tự như

a creative ethos

một cảm thức sáng tạo

a manner of orientation

một cách thức định hướng

a set of Science Machines

một tập hợp các cái máy khoa học

operated

được điều hành

technician

chuyên viên kỹ thuật

to amass

chồng chất

sufficent appreciation

sự đánh giá đầy đủ

presuppostitions

các giả thuyết đi trước tiền giả định

to shape their organization

quy định cách sắp xếp (các dữ kiện)

convinced

tin chắc rằng

the web of facts

cái mạng lưới sự kiện

to weave

kết dệt nên

to profess

tự cho rằng, tuyên bố rằng

impartial objectivity

một sự khách quan hoàn toàn không thiên vị

the logical impossibilyty of their attempt

sự bất khả thực hiện dự định của họ về mặt luận lý

neutral

trung lập, không có thành kiến

to turn their biases to good account

chuyển các thành kiến của họ trở thành có lợi (phục vụ được tốt cho nhu cầu hiểu biết)

social philosopher

triết gia xã hội

ultimately

tối hậu, sau cùng

ethical

đạo đức

political consequences

các hậu quả chính trị

approach to the proble of society

cách tiếp cận nghiên cứu vấn đề xã hội.


Selection 6


personality research

khảo cứu về nhân cách

concepts

các khái niệm

taboo

điểu cấm kỵ

to quote

trích dẫn

to the effect that

với ý muồn nói rằng

the sense of personal identity

cảm thức về tính đồng nhất của nhân cách (cảm thức mình là mình)

the ego

bản ngã

consciousness

ý thức

the unconscious

vô thức

to make but litthe progress without them

khó mà có thể tiến lên bước nào nếu không có chúng

educational psychology

tâm lý giáo dục

a long list of definitions of the self

một bản danh sách dài đầy các định nghĩa về bản ngã

the totality of the subjective enviroment

toàn thể môi trường chủ quan

individuality

cá tính

the keeper of the awareness reflective

người sở hữu ý thức mang tính phản ánh

an object

đối tượng, khách thể

subject

chủ thể

the knower

người biết, năng tri

the known

đối tượng được biết, sở tri

to comperhend

thấu hiểu

to approach the problem

tiếp cận vấn đề

the "insside"

cái bên trong (tức bản ngã)

to hold no promise of any precise solutions

không hứa hẹn sự giải quyết hay trả lời chính xác

to bring them into touch with

đã đưa họ đến chỗ tiếp xúc với

philosophic schools

các trường phái triết học

notably

đặc biệt là

exitentialism

triết học hiện sinh

existentialist statements

những lời phát biểu mang tính chất chủ nghĩa hiện sinh

notoriously difficult task

một công việc nổi tiếng là khó

convergence

sự hội tụ, đồng qui

pronounced

nổi bật, được nhấn mạnh

to clarify

soi sáng

Kierkegaard

nhà thần học Ðan Mạch, cha đẻ của thuyết hiện sinh

Weltanschauung

thế giới quan (tiếng Ðức)

an heroic philosophy

một triết lý dũng cảm

function

chức năng

values

giá trị

to point out

chỉ ra, vạch ra

generation

thế hệ

various possibilities of man's relationship with his world

những khả tính đa dạng của con người trong mối quan hệ của hắn với cuộc đời

to clarify his own possibilities

soi sáng các khả tính của chính mình

to exemplify

mô tả, biểu hiện

multiform human existence

cuộc hiện sinh đa dạng của con người

man types

các mẫu người

various ways of life

những phong cách sống khác nhau

a true and honest altituder towards life

một thái độ thẳng thắn và đúng đắn đối với cuộc sống

to strive after existence

cố gắng vươn đến hiện hữu

crystallization

sự kết tinh, tinh thể


SELECTIONS 7

Historical consciousness of this sort is a rather recent phenomenon in the long development of the human species; it distinguishes modern civilization from all the rest of living nature. Prehistoric peoplé, aptly called in German geshchrchllose Volker, peoples without history, lived in the timelessness of natural time. Their stories begin with "Es war einmal," which means, "It will aways be so". Perhaps the ancient Hebrews were the first people strongly conscious of history: the past history of their tribe is to them always vividly present and continuous, at the same time tribal history broadens tinto the context of universal history. Probably it is only at this stage of time - awareness that we meet the phenomenon unknown to the rest of living nature, fear of death, and, coresponding to its, the promise of eternal life, of a new birth, of survival. But we should note that the messate of comfort brought by Buddha is that of a death which will not be followed by new birth.

In the nineteenth centyry historical consciousness Cameron fully into its own and became the domenant trait of the period. The revolutionary character of the period which started with the French Revolution and the rapid changes brought about by constant new discoveries and the unprecedented progrss of technology created a new consciousness of time as a dynamic and moving force. While the Indian felt at home in timelessness an the Greek believed in the fundamental identity, the semper idem, of historical events, mordern man became a conscious wanderer through time. Excavations and the interpretation of myths opened to him new dimensions of time. Through the law of evolution everything became subject to time, and thereby to history: religion, language, literature, art, institutions, science. This new historical consciousness Cameron upon men in such a sudden and overwhelming fashion that the Germans developed it into a philosophy of its own, a Weltanschauung, historicism, which in spite of its great achievements, brought great dangers. It les, in Hegel and his disciple Marx, to a metaphysicization of history, according to which theory the historical process itself is a rvelation of the divine; the divine is no longer the law and limit of everything historical but is identical with history. Everything now becomes historically neceesary. The German philosopher, Martin Heidegger, greeted in 1933 the National Socialist totalitarian state as historically inevitable, as seinsgeschichtlich, and stressed that the philosopher, "der Wissende," must there fore avoid moral indignation as inappropriate.

(Of. HANS KOHN, A historian's Creed for Our Time)



SELECTION 8

Three aspects of musical enjoyment may be distinguished: the sensuos, the associative characterizing, and the syntactical. And thoughr every piece of music involves all three to some extent, some pieces tend to emphasize one aspect and minimize others. Thus at one end of what isobviously a continuum is the immediate gratification of the sensuous and the exclamatory outburst of uncontrolled, pentup, energy. At the other end of the continuum is the delayed gratification arising out of the perception of and response to the syntactical relationships which shape and mold musical experience, whether intellectual and emotional. The associative may function with the either. It may color our secsuous pleasures with thw satisfactions as to the probabilities of musical progress by characterizing musical events. For just as our estimate of the character of a theme or musical event shapes our expectations a s to how it will behave musically. And conversely, the way in which a musical event behaves - involves regular, deviant, or surprising progressions - influences our opinion as to its character. Thus the syntactical and characterizing facets of musical communication are inextricably linked .

The question of the ordering of values still remains. Are the different aspects of musical enjoyment equally valuable? Is a piece of music which appeals primarily to sensuous - associative pleasure as good as one which appeals to syntactical - associative enjoyment? If we put the matter as crudely as possible - if we ask " is the best arrangement of the best pop - tune as good as Beethoven's Ninth Symphony?" then the answer seems easy. But if we but a similar question using less popular work and ask " is Debussy's Afternoon of a Faun ? " as good as the Ninth Symphony"? we have qualms about the answer.

The difficulty is that, aside from the most primitive forms of musical emotional outburst and the most blatant appeals to the sensuous such as one finds in the sensuous such as one finds in the chepest pop-arrangements, there are no musical works of art in which syntacstical relationships do not play a significant role. Nor will it do to try to arrange musical works is order of their syntactical vấn đề. their sensuous - associative appeals. For even a work such as Debussy,s Afternoon of a Faun, which strongly emphasized the sensuous, is syntactically complex as complex, for instance, ad the first moverment of Mozart,s famous Piano Sonata in C major which is predominantly syntactical.

(Cf. LEONARD B. MEYER, Some Remarkss on

Value and Greatness in Music)

SELECTION 9

The revolution in art is as embracing as that in science, and relative to the life of the person, a more immediate one. We should not underestimate the extenstion of modern art as a g eneral cultural attitude. Permeating our advertising, decorating our living space, reconstructing our sense of sound, making hybrids of all the classical art forms, modern art is so pervasive an influence that even the most radical departure from the commonplace fails to cause any consternation. Has any culture heretofore found itself fostalgic for objects and experiences a decade or so removed in time but totally obliterated in experienced form? The reyolotion in primal shapes, colors, and textures wrought by the influence of modern art on industrial design in now so complete an aspect of our living that it would be difficult to single out a set of visual experiences which has not undergone out a set of visual experiences which has not undergone consederable transformatinon within a single revolution. In his essay on "the Man - Made Object" Gillo Dorfles refers to this characteristic as "formal instability." Coupled with the acknowledgement of such restless formal identily is the effort of man to create forms. Surrounded by what he has "made" and a ware of his ability to xhange its role as constitutor of reality. The shift from a denotative to a constitutive response to the world is rooted not only in modern techlology but in modern aesthetics as well.

Morcover, the ingrained dependence of the visual and auditory senses is now experienced as inseparable from the sense of touch. The new art forms struggle against the conceptual domination of our traditional patterns of response. The art of assemblage, kinetic sculpture, and mixed media make the tactile experience central. Modern in theme, these art activities reinvoke the primitive affection for the hands and symbolically restate the case for Homo faber.

No longer separate from his world like a spectator from a picture, modern man has slowly acknowledge the presence of an irreductible factor, how he formulates the environment becomes the environments itself. Recently this insight has been stated in cryptic form by Marshall Mc. Luhan as "the medium is the message." We should not, however, be so surprised at this claim, for early in our century the traditional stranglehold on the meaning of nature, exercised through figid conceptual models, was dramatically broken by the artistic revolution in the use of "media". Subsequently spurred on by the influence of the generic attitude known as "Dada," modern art assaulted the establisyhed aesthetich values: In art as in science, the obviousness of common sense was rejected as a resource for creative work. "Nouns, "things," and the consensus of meaning rooted in an "objective" framework were now taken to be but abstractions from a distinctively personalized aesthetic.

(Cf. JOHN J. Mc DERMOTT, A Radically Empirical Aesthtic)

SELECTION 10

According to the Ch'an tradition , their school originated with certain teachings expounded by Gotama to Maha Kasyapa. This event was called "a transmission of the mind outside the written text." This occurred when gotama, teaching in a garden, levitated a flower. Only Maha kasyapa understood the significance of this acst to mean that there were techings that could not be transmitted through words or text. Buddhism, according to legend, was introduced into China at the beginning of th Christian era. Around A.D. 67, Emperor Ming of the Latter Han dynasty (A.D. 58-75) saw in a dream a golden man, with sunlight issuing from the back of his neck, fly through the air and land on earth. When the emperor asked a court scholar the meaning of this dream, he was told it represented an Indian Buddha.

Ming dispatched an emissary to India to bring the Buddhist teachings back to China. The emissary returned to the Lo Yang court, accompanied by two Indial Buddhist monks and images of the Buddha and sutras. They were welcomed by the emperor and housed in the white. Temple. These monks then began to translate into Chinese a document called "The Sutra in 42 sextions".

Bodhidharma recounted the story of Maha Kasyapa and the flower in the garden to his chief sutdent, Hui-K'O . Bodhidharma, the 28th Patriarch, had come to China as the first Ch'an Patriarch. After his death, Hui - K'O assumed lesdership of the school as the 2nội dung Patriarch. There followed Seng Tsan. Tao Hsin, and Hung Yen.



After Hung's death, a schism split th Ch'an sect into the Northern and Southern Schools. The Northern School was headed by Shen - Hsiu (600-706) . This school taught the concept of gradual enlightenment based on the study of Buddhist texts and meditation practice. The Southern school was headed by Hui - Neng (638-713) and taught belief in instantaneous enlightenment throught meditation, discarding all Buddhist writtings. Each of these men was considered the legitimate 6th Patriarch. Later, other schisms developed
(Cf. KEVIN O'NEIL The Origin and Teaching of Ch'an and Zen Buddhism in China)

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