những hậu quả rút ra từ phép diễn dịch (diễn dịch là đi từ một nguyên lý tổng quát đến việc giải thích các trường hợp cá biệt, ngược lại phép quy nạp)
a pervasive conjecture
một ức thuyết bao trùm, tổng quát
sự khéo léo , tinh xảo
to be lavished on
được trút như mưa xuống
to permit exceptions
cho phép có ngoại lệ
sách giáo khoa
đông thành nước đá
NHẬN XÉT CHUNG về loại
THE FORMAL style
Nói thật chính xác thì qua ba Selectión ở trên, chúng ta vẫn chưa chứng kiến loại formal style ở cực điểm của nó, như đã từng bị George orwell phê phán và chế nhạo kịch liệt trong bài văn tiểu luận Politics and the English language. Rải rác xuyên qua ba selectión vẫn còn thấy dấu vết của phong cách văn học (literary style) trong việc sử dụng những hình tượng cụ thể để diễn đạt các khái niệm trừu tượng....nhưng dù sao người đọc cũng có thể ghi nhận những đặc điểm sau:
1. Về mặt từ vựng, chữ dùng đại đa số là danh từ trừu tượng (abstract nouns) ít phổ biến trong phong cách hội thoại.
- temperamaental basis (selection1)
- apually accommodate (selection 2)
- aggregations (selection 1)
- organically integrated (selection1)
- factbound significance (selection 3)
Chúng ta chỉ cần thử chuyển các thí dụ trên đây sang phong cách hội thoại (colloquial) thì sẽ thấy ý nghĩa dễ lãnh hội hơn nhiều.
Thí dụ : "Tempe ramental basis..." (nguyên câu trong selection 1) có thể viết lại thành : "He was oplimistic not only becausa his nature was but because his thinking convinced him of that."
Hay là "equally accomodate" (trong selection 2) có thể nói một cách đơn giản hơn là "also explain".
2. Về mặt cú pháp, các nhóm từ mà Noun là trung tâm thường được kết cấu theo mô hình.
adv adj N
- Extremely complicated forms (Selcection 3)
adv adj N
Một mô hình biến dạng của mô hình nói trên là :
Noun - Adverd - N
Thí dụ : the contrast is philosophically suggetive (S3)
N Adv adj
Measure quantities are not logically sidependent (S3)
N Adv Adj
All are organically integrated (S1)
Pr(N) Adv Adj
Old hypotheses are sufficiently elastic (S2)
N Adv Adj
Các ngữ tuyến trong phong cách Formal thường chứa đựng nhiều mệnh đề chính, phụ, tròng tréo, đan quyện vào nhau một cách phức tạp, khiến người đọc đôi khi lúng túng không tim ra được ý chính nằm ở mệnh đề nào, thí dụ như câ chót trong Selection 2, hay hai câu chot của Selection 3.
3. Về mặt ngữ pháp, câuvăn trong phong cáh Formal thường tôn trong và đi sát các quy định luật ngữ pháp truyền thống, nghĩa là không xé rào đâm ngang như phong cách hội thoại. Riêng trong 3 election nói trên, ta thấy có một đặc ngữ pháp thường xuyên xuất hiện trong phong cách Formal, đó là thể thụ động (Passive Voice) được ưa chuộng hơn thế chủ động.
Thí dụ :
- It is wddely recognized that.... (selection 2)
- It has been demonstrted that ...( selection 2)
- A certain body of experience can be usefully interpreted (selection 2)
- More variables are used than (selection 2)
- Much ingenuity has been lavished on (selection 3)
- It must be derected towards .... (selection 1)
Behavior, conceived in an evolutionary sende, in of course a very dld phenomenon. It consists in adjust - ment processes involed in the relatinship of or-ganism and its environment, processes which are in certain respects fundamentally different from those internal to the organism which can be mediated by drrectly contiguous , or those which are involved in physico chemical interehanges with the en viron-ment. The clements of the problem of learning and even of culture are given at this internal level, that is there must be preception and, in some sense cognition inshort, self -direction ofbehavior, implying independence of the envirtionmeltal fluctuations, means goal-directedness, a tendency to attain or maintain what in some sense are optimal states in the relation of organism and environment.
This is to say that far down on subhuman levels the set of behavioral between the organism and its environment come to constitute a system which must be distinguished from the internal physiological system of the organism and from the bichemical level of interchange. The behavior system is to be regarded as a system of control relative to the physiological system; it determines the location of the organism at different times, the relation to food supply, the level of exposure to various danger, and of course the relation to sexual objects essentila to sexual reproduetion. Again on subhuman levels beharioral interaction with other organisms. Particularly though by no means exclysively of the same species, is commonlace.
It is into his context of the behavior of the organism as a system and of the interaction of the behavior systems of different organisms that the problem of the nature of the socio - cultural systems with which we are concerned must be fitted. We may presume that originally the behavior system was mainly instrumentasl to the needs of the organism in a physilogical sense. But certainly in the course of evolution its relative importance has grown, and the homeestatic mechanisms of the physiological system have become intertwined with the goal - directed mechanisms of the behavior system. Again, we may presume that instrumental behaviors have contained a larger element of flexibility in the sense of sensitivity to environmental influences and hence capacity for learning, than have the more fundamental goal - orientations.
(Cf. TALCOTT PARSONS, Main in His Social Environment)
Nowhere has the effect of this scientific revolution been more sweeping than in what me have significantly come to call the behavioral and social sciences. Psychology, the study of human behavior, is now as statistics - ridden, as prone to predictions and controlled experiments as any of the physical or natural sciences. Similarlly echoing the vocabylary and aping the methodologies of the sciences of nature are the other so - called "sciences of man" - anthropology, socilogy, econnomics, history, and political science.
The popularity of psychological jargon, the universal application of psychological tests and measurements and the continued imaginative hold on the public mind of the figure of the psychoanalyst and psychiatrist are symptom of modern psychology's impact on the conciousness of modern man. Moreovere, these symproms, however reflective they are of loose thinking pseudo - science or of a pervasive and sick introspection, are also capable of providing tremendously useful insights into human behavior Freudian psychology alone, for example, vields us an imaginative thought structure capable of interpreting experience in an exciting new way. It is only when Frend's structure is accepted as "reality" that serious error results. Discreetly used, aptitude tests, personality indexes, or even intelligence quotients, can give helpful clues to both the spychologist and the person cager for self - understanding.
The situation of the social sciences in our time parallels that of poychology. For the most part even historians see them selves as scientists. In the notes that "science seems to many less a creative ethos and a manner of orientation than a Set of Science Machines, operated by technicians". Historians often amass facts without sufficient appreciation that their presuppositions help to selcect those facts and shape their organization. Convinced that they can present the "truth " about reality, they forget that the web of facts they weave is women by themselves. When social scientists profess impartial objectivity we should remind them not only of the logical impossibility of their attempt, but also of Robert Bierstedt's remark that the "greatest thinkers... have not been the neutral and objective ones, but those who have turned their biases to good account. behind every great sociologist there cociologist can ultimately escape the ethical and political consequense of his own approach to the problem of Society".
(Of. PAUL C. OBLER, Man in Society)
Personality research today applies concepts which were taboo only a short time ago. We quoted Murphy's statement to the effect that the "sense of personal identity" is the basis of personality. The problem of the ego and of consciousness, in their relation to the unconscious, of course, have come before the psychologist again and he can make but little progress without them. It is intersting to note that Jersild's recent book in educational psychology published under the title In Search of Self, opens with a long list of definitions of the self which he actually needed for his research. We find there the famous definition of William James: "the self is the totality of the subjective environment of man". "The self is the individuality as it is known to the individual.", "the keeper of the wareness" the self is reflective, "it is an object in itsself and can be both subject and object", it is both the knower and the known, it comprehends and is comprehended.
The courage with which these psychologists approach the problem of the ego or the "inside", a problem which holds no promise of any precise solutions, brings them into touch with certain contemporary philosophic schools, notably. Exixtentialism. The psychology of personality makes existentialist statements.
To define the meaning of Existialism is a notoriously diffcult task. But perhaps it is just the convergence between psychology and philosophy, so pronounced today, which can clarify it for us. The first existentialist book of the century, after Kierkegaare, was a "psychological" book. In the Psychology of Weltanschauung, published in 1919, Karl Jaspers argued that a true philosophy must be an heroic philosophy. Its function is to discover values and to point out the road man should follow. Our generation, however, has not been given an heroic philosophy. For this reason the contemporary philosopher can only point out the various possibilities of man's relationship with his world. Through the study of these possibilities man can clarify his own possibilities. Through these possibilities, contemporary philosophy exemplifies the multiform human existence. Thus Jasper shows men....types, that is.. in their various ways of life and in their struggles for a true and honest attitude towards life. Understanding these types, we can understand ourselves, our own existence. This is the psychology of Weltanschauung the help which the philosopher offers to the man who strives after existence and its crystallization is.. "psychological".
(Of. SINAL UCKO, Philosophu and Psychology in Cxontemporary Thought)
conceived in an evolutio nary sense
nếu được quan niệm theo ý nghĩa tiến hoá (Darwin) = nếu nhìn từ góc độ của thuyết tiến hoá ( Darwin)