Lesson 1: tenses ( Thì ) simple present tense:



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Trường THPT NAM LÝ PHAN DOAN DIEP


LESSON 1: TENSES ( Thì )

1. SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE:( Thì hiện tại đơn )

S + VERB ( S, ES )

S + VERB ( S, ES ) + OBJECT

+ To show the truth , everyday habits , naturals , present actions ………( Diễn tả hành động xảy ra ở hiện tại )

Ex: The sun rises in the east.

+ Expressions often used are: always , usually , often , frequently , sometimes , seldom , rarely, never, now ,

these days , today , nowadays , every day/ night/ afternoon/week/ month/ year , once a week ……

Ex: She always goes to church on Sundays .

2. PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE ( To be + ving ) (Thì hiện tại tiếp diễn )


S + ( AM / IS / ARE ) + V-ing + OBJECT

+ To show things that are happening over a long period time .(Diễn tả hành động đang xảy ra ở hiện tại )

Ex : They are watching the football match on TV now.

+ Expressions often used are: at the moment , at the present time . now , right now , presently………

+ Present continuous is often used in the following structures

Ex: Keep silent! The baby is sleeping.

Ex: Be careful! The bus is coming.



3. PRESENT PERFECT TENSE ( Thì hiện tại hoàn thành )

S + HAS / HAVE + V3 / Ved

+ To express an action that happened in the past and continues to the present ( Diễn tả một hành động xảy ra trong quá khứ và còn tiếp tục đến hiện tại )

Ex: We have studied English for six years.

+ To express an action that happened in the past but the time is indefinite. ( Diễn tả một hành động xảy ra trong quá khứ nhưng thời gian không xác định )

Ex: I have seen that film before.

+ Expressions often used ; sofar , up to now , until now , already. never , ever , recently , just , for , since.

Note : S + HAS / HAVE + V3 / Ved + SINCE + S + V2 / ed

Ex: I have known Mary since she was a baby.

4. SIMPLE PAST TENSE ( Thì quá khứ đơn )


S + V2 / ed + OBJECT

+ To show things which happened and ended.( Diễn tả một hành động xảy ra trong quá khứ )

Ex: I studied well last year.

+ Expressions often used ; yesterday, last week / month / year, ago,………time in the past.

5. PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE ( Thì quá khứ tiếp diễn )


S + Was / Were + V-ing + Object

+ To show things which were happening at a time or during a period of time in the past ( Diễn tả hành động đang xảy ra ở một thời điểm xác định trong quá khứ )

Ex: At this time yesterday morning, I was playing chess with John.

Ex: We were doing home work at 8 p.m yesterday.


A / When + S + V2 / ed , S + Was / Were + V-ing.

Ex: When he came, they were cooking dinner.



B / As + S + Was / Were + V-ing , S + V2 / ed

Ex: As it was raining, I left home.



C / S + Was / Were + V-ing + While + S + Was / were + V-ing

Ex: I was doing my homework while my mother was cooking lunch.



6. PAST PERFECT TENSE ( Thì quá khứ hoàn thành )

S + HAD + V3 / Ved

+ To show things which happened before a point of time in the past ( Diễn tả một hành động xảy ra trước một thời điểm trong quá khứ )

Ex: He had left England for France before 1990.

+ To show things which happened before another thing in the past ( Diễn tả một hành động xảy ra trước hành động khác trong quá khứ )


A / S + HAD + V3 / Ved + BEFORE + S + V2 / ed

Ex: They had phoned me before they came here.



B / S + V2 / ED + AFTER + S + HAD + V3 / VED

Ex: I went to school after I had had breakfast.



7. SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE ( Thì tương lai đơn )

S + WILL + V(bare infinitive)

+ To show things which will happen in the future

Ex: We will visit Ha Long Bay next week.

+ Expressions often used are tomorrow , next week / month / year , tomorrow night , next summer………

8. FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE ( Thì tương lai tiếp diễn )


S + WILL BE + V-ing

+ To show things which will happen at a time or during a period of time in the future ( Diễn tả một hành động sẽ đang xảy ra ở một thời điểm xác định trong tương lai )

Ex: We will be playing badminton at 9:00 a.m tomorrow.



9. FUTURE PERFECT TENSE ( Thì tương lai hoàn thành )

S + WILL + HAVE + V3/ed

+ To show an action which will be completed before a certain point in future time.

( Một hành động sẽ hoàn thành trước một thời điểm nhất định trong tương lai )

Ex: By the end of this year, I will have been there for 10 years.

10. FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE ( Thì tương lai hoàn thành tiếp diễn )


S + WILL + HAVE + BEEN + V-ing

+ To show an continuous action which at a given time will be in the past.

( Một hành động xảy ra trong quá khứ kéo dài đến một thời điểm cho trước trong tương lai )

Ex: By the end of this school year, I will have been teaching at Chu Van An High School for 9 years.

11. BE GOING TO is used to express intention in the future, or something is going to happen in the near future. ( Tương lai gần )

Ex: I am going to buy a house this summer.

Ex: Look ! It is going to rain.

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SUBJECT – VERB AGREEMENT

1. Singular verb

- Chủ ngữ số ít ( hoặc danh từ không đếm được)

EX: Milk is good for health

- Hai chủ từ nối với nhau bằng “ and” nhưng có cùng ý tưởng hoặc chỉ một người.

EX: Love and to be loved is the happiest thing on the earth.

My best friend and adviser, Tom , is coming tonight.

- Chủ ngữ l hai danh từ khc nhau nối với nhau bằng “and” nhưng trước mỗi danh từ cĩ each hoặc every.

EX: Each boy and each girl has a book.

- Chủ ngữ l các đại từ phiếm chỉ ( everybody, somebody, nobody, something, …)

EX: Nothing was seen last night because of the darkness.

- Chủ ngữ l: Tiền, Thời gian, Khoảng cch hoặc Số lượng.

EX: Twenty dollars is too much to pay for such a shirt.

Four weeks is a long time to wait for you.

- Chủ ngữ l mệnh đề hay danh động từ ( gerund).

EX: Swimming is good for health.

That you get very high grades in school is necessary.

- Chủ ngữ l cc danh từ trừu tượng. ( knowledge, beauty,…), mơn học ( physics, mathematics,…), căn bệnh ( meales, mumps, …) hoặc cc danh từ như: news, funiture, work,…

EX: The funiture is more expensive than we thought.



2. Plural verb

- Chủ ngữ số nhiều.

EX: They are students.

- Chủ ngữ l hai danh từ nối với nhau bằng “and”.

EX: Nam and Ba are brothers.

Water and oil don’t mix.

- Chủ ngữ l: The + Adjective

EX: The rich are not always happy.

- Chủ ngữ l cc danh từ tập hợp ( people, police, cattle,…)

EX: The police have arrested the thieves.

- Chủ ngữ l: A few, both, many + noun

EX: A few books were lost yesterday.



3. Singular or pluar verb.

- Chủ ngữ l hai danh từ nối với nhau bằng “or”, “neither… nor”, “either…or”, hoặc “not only…but also” thì động từ được chia theo danh từ thứ hai.

EX: Neither he nor his friends were at school yesterday.

- Chủ ngữ l hai danh từ nối với nhau bằng “with”, “as well as”, hoặc “ together with” thì động từ chia theo danh từ thứ nhất

EX: The director as well as his staff has to learn English.

- Chủ ngữ l một cụm từ cĩ giới từ thì động từ chia theo dand từ đứng trước giới từ.

EX: The picture of soldiers has been sold.

- Chủ ngữ l: “The munber of + noun” thì động từ chia số ít

EX: The number of students in this class is small.

- Chủ ngữ l: “A munber of + noun” thì động từ chia số nhiều.

EX: A number of students were absent yesterday.

- Chủ ngữ l “ There + be + noun” thì động từ “be” chia theo danh từ(noun)

EX: There is a fly in this room

There are a lot of people here.



LESSON 2

INFINITIVE AND GERUND

I / GERUND : ( danh động từ ) ( V + ING )

Ways of Use :

1. Subject of a sentence

Ex: Reading the story of Kieu is interesting .



2. Complement of To Be after Subject of Thing + To Be

Ex : My hobby is fishing .



3. After Prepositions

Ex : She is interested in learning English .



4. After some verbs : admit, advise, appreciate, avoid, consider, delay /postpone/ defer, deny, discuss, dislike, detest / hate, enjoy, escape, keep, mind, miss, , practise, prevent, prefer, resit,resist, cease, finish, suggest,

Ex: He avoids meeting me.



5. After some Verbs + Object Combinations

Ex: We saw the thief entering the house.



Or He spent five hours doing his task.

6. In some other structures :

It’s no good / use, there is no point, what’s the point of, what about , be worth, be busy, look forward to, be used to / be accustomed to / get used to, can’t help, can’t bear, can’t stand ……

Ex: It is no use saying that

I am used to getting up early.



II / THE INFINITIVE ( TO + VERB )

1 Subject of the sentence ( Chủ từ của câu )

Ex : To help her is my duty.



  1. want

ask

tell

request + O + To - infinitive

order

beg



EX: He tells me to send this letter.



  1. decide, plan / intend

tend, claim / demand

desire / wish, fail

hope, hesitate + to - infinitive

want, pretend

agree, refuse

axpect, …

EX: Mary learned to swim when she was young.



  1. be

look

seem + adjective + to - infinitive

feel



* Adjectives: After some ADJEATIVES of Feeling or Attitudes

afraid foolish pleased disappointed sorry

angry fortunate qualified prepared lucky

eager glad ready likely proud

Ex : The party is ready to serve.

EX: I’m glad to see you again.

5 After the verb TO BE

Ex : We are to pass the next exam.



6 After Noun ( Infinitive of Purpose ) : TO / IN ORDER TO / SO AS TO + V(bare infinitive )

Ex : There are lots of things to do today.

Ex : He studies hard so as to pass the entrance examination.

- BARE – INFINITIVE

1. After modal verbs: can, may, must, …

EX: I must go home now.

2. After had better, would rather, do nothing but.

EX: He did nothing but complain about his life.

You’d better stay at home today.



3
+ O + V(bare-inf.)
.
Make

Let

EX: The clowns made them laugh a lot last night.



III. VERB FOLLOWED BY EITHER INFINITIVE OR GERUNDS

* Without changing in meaning

begin V-ing

continue +

start,… to - inf

Ex : It began to rain when I went to school.



Or It began raining when I went to school.

- Verbs of perception



see V- ing

hear

taste + O +

smell

notice bare – inf

EX: I saw Mary walking in th park yesterday.

Or I saw Mary walk in the park yesterday.



* With changing in meaning : thay đổi nghĩa )

- LIKE

V-ing (sở thích )

Like +

To – inf ( thích vì nghĩ rằng nĩ tốt)

Note: would like + to- inf; feel like + V-ing (ước cĩ ) = wish for

EX: I like fishing.

I like to do my job well.

- TRY

V-ing (thử )

Try +

To – inf ( cố gắng)

EX: I tried borrowing some money from John but he refused

I tried to do my test well.

- STOP

V-ing (ngừng, thơi khơng lm nữa )

Stop +

To – inf ( ngừng lại để…)

EX: - Stop talking.

- Stop to talk.

- REMEMBER, FORGET, REGRET

Remember V-ing (V đ xy ra trước remember, forget, regret)

forget +

regret To- inf ( To-inf xảy ra sau remember, forget, regret)

Ex : He remembers meeting you when he was in France. ( He met you. )

Ex : Remember to sent me a letter when you arrive in Ho Chi Minh city. ( you will send.)

- ALLOW, PERMIT, ADVISE, RECOMMEND



Allow = permit V-ing

+

Advise = recommend O + to-inf.

EX: I permit you to go out.

I permit going out.

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LESSON 3

IF CLAUSE (Câu điều kiện )

I / Type 1 . Present possible :


will


If + S + present tense, S +

+ V(bare inf.)
shall


can

may

Ex : If the weather is fine, I will go for a picnic.

Ex : If she studies hard , she will pass the exam.



II / Type 2. Present unreal :


If + S + past tense ( V2 / ed or Were ) , S +
could

should

would


+ V(bare inf.)
might


Ex : I am not fine, so I can’t join the party.

=>If I were fine, I could join the party.

Ex : Alice doesn’t have free time today, so she doesn’t go to the cinema.

=>If Alice had free time today, she would go to the cinema.



III / Type 3 . Past unreal :

could have


If + S + past perfect , S +

should have



would have


+ V3 / Ved
might have


Ex : They didn’t go because they were busy yesterday.

=> If they hadn’t been busy yesterday, they would have gone.

Ex : We didn’t study hard, so we failed in an exam last year.

=> If we had studied hard last year, we could have passed the exam.


* Note : Past unreal with present effect :

If + S + past perfect , S + would + V1

Ex : If we had got married, we would have a lot of children now.

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LESSON 4 – WISH (Ước )

I / Future Wish ( Ước trái ngược với một tình huống trong tương lai )


S + Wish ( es ) + That + S +

+ V(bare inf.)
would

could

were + V- ing

Ex : Mary will visit Paris next week.

=> I wish that Mary wouldn’t visit Paris next week .

Ex : I can’t speak Spanish fluently.

=> I wish that I could speak Spanish fluently.



II / Present Wish ( Ước trái ngược với một tình huống ở hiện tại )


S + Wish ( es ) + That + S +
V2 / ed

were

Ex : The weather isn’t good. => I wish that the weather were good.

Ex : He learns very badly. => They wish he didn’t learn badly.



III / Past Wish ( Ước trái ngược với một tình huống ở quá khứ )


S + wish ( es ) + That + S +
Had + V3 / Ved

Could have + V3 / Ved

Ex : I’m sorry, they didn’t take part in the party last night.

=> I wish They had taken part in the party last night.

Ex : She couldn’t be with me yesterday.

=> I wish she could have been with me yesterday.

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LESSON 5

ACTIVE SENTENCE AND PASSIVE SENTENCE


Form of Be + Pastparticiple ( Passive voice )

Dạng của Be + quá khứ phân từ ( thành lập thể thụ động )



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