I gerund : Chức năng: Là chủ ngữ của câu: Dancing



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CHUYÊN ĐỀ 3
DANH ĐỘNG TỪ VÀ ĐỘNG TỪ NGUYÊN THỂ ( GERUND AND INFINITIVE)
* PHẦN I: LÝ THUYẾT

I. GERUND :

1. Chức năng:

  • Là chủ ngữ của câu: Dancing bored him

  • Bổ ngữ của động từ: Her hobby is painting

  • Là bổ ngữ: Seeing is believing

  • Sau giới từ: He is interested in watching films on Tv.

  • Sau một vài động từ: avoid, mind, enjoy.........

2. Cách dùng cụ thể

a. Verb + V-ing: Danh động từ theo sau một số động từ

Admit: thú nhận

Anticipate: mong đợi

Avoid: tránh

Consider: xem xét

Delay: hoãn lại

Defer: trì hoãn

Deny: từ chối

Detest: ghét

Dislike: không thích

Dread: sợ

Enjoy: thích thú

Escape: trốn thoát

Excuse: thứ lỗi

Fancy: đam mê

Finish

Forgive: tha thứ



Like: thích

Love: yêu thích

Imagine: tưởng tượng

Involve: dính líu, liên quan

Keep: giữ, tiếp

Mind: phiền

Miss: lỡ, nhớ

Mention: đề cập



Pardon: tha thứ, tha lỗi Prevent: ngăn ngừa Postpone: hoãn lại

Practice: thực hành Propose (= suggest) Quit: từ bỏ

Recollect: nhớ lại Resent: căm thù Recall: gợi nhớ/ recollect

Resume: cho rằng Resist : kháng cự, ngăn cản Risk : mạo hiểm Suggest: gợi ý Stop/ begin/ start Hate: ghét


Ex: He admitted taking the money. He detests writing letters.

He didn’t want to risk getting wet. I can’t understand his/ him leaving his wife.



Chú ý: excuse, forgive, pardon, prevent không trực tiếp theo sau bởi V-ing mà theo sau bởi:

Tính từ sở hữu/tân ngữ + V-ing hoặc tân ngữ + giới từ + V-ing

A(ed)reciate thường theo sau bởi tính từ sở hữu + V-ing (hoặc ở dạng bị động)

Ex: Forgive my/ me ringing you up so early.

Forgive me for ringing you up so early.

You can’t prevent his/ him spending his own money.

You can’t prevent him from spending his own money.

I appreciate your giving me so much of your time.

I appreciate being given this opportunity.

b. Expression + V-ing: Một số thành ngữ theo sau bởi V-ing

- have fun/ a good time + V-ing : vui vẻ …

- have trouble/ difficulty + V-ing:

- have a hard time/ difficult time + V-ing

- spend + time/ money + V-ing (present participle) He spends 3 hours studying English every day.

- waste + time/money + V-ing :

- sit + Danh từ nơi chốn + V-ing : she sat at her desk writing a letter

- stand + danh từ nơi chốn + V-ing

- lie + danh từ nơi chốn + Ving

- can’t help = can’t bear = can’t stand = can’t resist (không thể chịu được)



I can’t bear hearing his lies

         I can’t stand seeing him here           

- it is no good / it is no use (vô ích / không có ích) :      It’s no use phoning him at this time

- there’s no point in …

 - to be busy           bận rộn My mother is busy cooking in the kitchen.

- to be  worth        đáng  This book is worth reading

- S + prefer + V-ing + to + V-ing: thích làm gì hơn làm gì

c. giới từ + V-ing: Sau các giới từ động từ chia V-ing

* Lưu ý: Khi “to” đóng vai trò giới từ trong các cấu trúc sau



  • be use to = get used to = be accustomed to : quen với

  • look forward to: mong đợi

  • relate to: liên quan đến

  • dedicade/ contribute/devote to: cống hiến

  • refer to: đề cập đến

  • object/oppose to: phản đối

d. go + gerund để chỉ một hoạt động đặc biệt nào đó: (Present participle)

  • go fishing                      go hunting go bowling go jogging

  • go sho(ed)ing                go camping go sightseeing go sailing

  • go swimming                go dancing go running go canoening

  • go hiking                       go birdwatching go boating …

3. The perfect gerund (phân từ hoàn thành)

Form: having V(ed)

having V(ed)được sử dụng thay thế (V-ing) khi chúng ta đề cập tới một hành động đã hoàn tất trong quá khứ:

Ex: He was accused of having stolen her money.



He denied having been there.

Having finished his materials, he went to bed.

4. The passive gerund (dạng bị động của danh động từ)

Form: being + past participle (present)

having + been + V(ed) (past)

Ex: I am interested in being given money by my mother.

The safe showed no signs of having been touched.
II. INFINITIVES (động từ nguyên thể)

1. Bare infinitive (V)



    • Được dùng sau động từ make, have với nghĩa sai bảo, yêu cầu

The Brown made their children clean their room.

The guest had the porters carry their luggage upstairs.



  • Được dùng sau động từ giác quan như see, hear, feel,notice, taste, watch,smell, observe....

We incidentally saw the plane crash into the moutain.

The man noticed his assistant leave work earlier than usual.



* chú ý: Feel, see, hear, watch, notice, observe, smell, overhear

Feel, hear, see… + O + Ving (present participle): bắt gặp ai đó đang làm gì, 1 phần hành động

Feel, hear, see… + O + V. : thấy ai đó đã làm gì, toàn bộ hành động

  • Đuợc dùng sau động từ let và help.

Ex: My brother let me use computer.

Ex: The parents helped their children set up the tent.



  • Được dùng sau các động từ khuyết thiếu và trợ động từ: can, could, will, shall, would, should, used to, had better, need, ought to, do, did …

  • Trong cấu trúc: would rather/ had better + V

2. To – infinitive (to V)

2.1. To infinitive sau động từ:

Dạng 1: V + TO INFINITIVE :

1.agree: đồng ý 2.aim: nhằm mục đích 3. appear: có vẻ 4.arrange: sắp xếp

5.ask: yêu cầu 6.attempt: cố gắng 7.bother: phiền 8.care: để ý

9.choose: chọn 10.claim: công bố 11.decide: quyết định 12.demand: yêu cầu

13.fail: thất bại 14.determine: định đoạt 15.guarantee: bảo đảm 16.happen: xảy ra

17. hesitate: do dự 18.hope: hy vọng 19.learn: học 20.manage: xoay xở

21.neglect: lơ đãng 22.offer: đề nghị 23.plan: có kế hoạch 24.prepare:chuẩn bị 25.pretend: giả vờ 26. proceed: tiếp nối 27.promise: 28.prove: chứng tỏ

29.refuse: từ chối 30.resolve: nhất quyết 31.seem: 32.swear: thề

33.tend: có xu hướng 34.threaten: dọa 35.volunteer: tình nguyện 36.vow: dụ dỗ

37.wish 38.want 39.need 40.wait

41. expect 42. intend 43. would like/ would love 44. beg

45. begin/ start 46. afford : đủ khả năng 47. be willing 48. be able

49. expect 50. intend 51.beg: cầu khẩn 52. prefer

Dạng 2: V + O + TO INFINITIVE

- Danh từ/ đại từ làm tân ngữ (objects) đi sau, rồi mới đến “to infinitive”

She advised  me to go to the English Club.

* Một số động từ thường gặp:

+ advise : khuyên + allow: cho phép + ask: yêu cầu.

+ cause: gây ra. + command : yêu cầu, ra lệnh + encourage: khuyến khích

+ expect: mong chờ. + forbid: cấm + force : buộc

+ instruct: chỉ dẫn + invite: mời + oblige: bắt buộc

+ need: cần - We need you to help us + teach: dạy

+ tell: bảo. + want: muốn + warn : cảnh báo

+ remind: nhắc nhở + order: yêu cầu, ra lệnh + persuade : thuyết phục

+ request: yêu cầu + show : + train : đào tạo, huấn luyện

+ instruct: chỉ dẫn + permit: cho phép + remind: nhắc nhở

* NOTES :

+ allow / permit / advise/ recommend/ encourage + OBJECT + to infinitive

Ex: She doesn’t allow me to smoke in her room



+ allow/ permit/ recommend/ encourage/ advise + gerund

Ex: She doesn’t allow smoking in her room



Dạng 3: V + TO INFINITIVE/ GERUND (một số động từ theo sau bởi to infinitive and gerund)

Nhóm 1: V + to Infinitive / Gerund ( không khác nghĩa )

- begin                   - start                      - continue             

         He began to laugh = He began laughing

  Chú ý :

a) Không nên dùng: It’s beginning raining

Nên nói: It is begining to rain



b) to V thường mang ý nghĩa của một mục đích, một dự tính trong tương lai, trong khi danh động từ mang ý nghĩa một kinh nghiệm sẵn có.

I like drinking coffee, but today I like a cup of tea.



Nhóm 2: V + infinitive / Gerund ( khác nghĩa)

  remember, forget, regret, try, stop, need , go on



  1. NEED

Need to do = it is necessary to do :cần phải làm ( động từ nguyên mẫu mang nghĩa chủ động)

Need doing = need to be done : cần phải được làm ( động từ nguyên mẫu mang nghĩa bị động)
Tom needs to work harder. (It is necessary for Tom to work harder.)

The grass in front of the house needs cutting. (The grass in front of the house needs to be cut.)



  1. STOP

Stop to do = stop in order to do : dừng lại để làm việc gì khác

Stop doing = not to do something any longer : dừng làm việc gì đó (đang làm)

They stopped to look at the pictures.

They stopped smoking because it is bad for their health.


  1. REGRET/ REMEMBER/ FORGET:

Remember/forget/regret + to V: nhớ/quên/tiếc sẽ phải làm gì (ở hiện tại và tương lai)

Remember to send this letter (hãy nhớ gửi bức thư này).

Don’t forget to buy flowers (đừng quên mua hoa đấy)

I regret to inform you that the train was canceled (tôi rất tiếc phải báo tin cho anh rằng …)

Remember/forget/regret + V-ing: nhớ/quên/tiếc đã làm gì (ở quá khứ).
I paid her $2. I still remember that. I still remember paying her $2 (tôi nhớ đã trả cô ấy 2 đô la).

She will never forget meeting the Queen (cô ấy không bao giờ quên lần gặp nữ hoàng)

He regrets leaving school early. It is the biggest mistake in his life.

d. TRY

Try to do : cố gắng làm

Try doing : thử làm

She tries to pass the entrance exam to the college of pharmacy.

I’ve got a terrible headache. I try taking some aspirins but they didn’t help.

e. GO ON:

Go on doing s.th. : tiếp tục làm cùng một việc gì đó.

Go on to do s.th. : làm hay nói việc gì khác

The Minister went on talking for two hours.

We must change our ways. We can’t go on living like this.

After discussing the economy, the Minister went on to talk about foreign policy.



f. MEAN

Mean + to V = intend to V: dự định làm gì đó

Mean + V-ing = involve: bao gồm, bao hàm, có nghĩa là

2.2. To infinitive thường sau các tính từ:


  • Trong cấu trúc: BE + ADJECTIVE + TO INFINITIVE

- It’s difficult to find their house   - I’m glad to see you.

  • Trong cấu trúc:

To infinitive + be + Adjective chỉ mục đích

Gerund + be + Adjective dùng như danh từ

- It’s exciting to play football = Playing football is exciting



  • Trong cấu trúc:

S + be/ get/ look/ seem/ become...+ too + Adj +(for O) + to infi.

S + V (thường) + too + Adv +(for O) + to infi.

The water in this glass is too hot to drink.

This coffee is too hot for me to drink.

He runs too slowly to catch the bus.



  • Trong cấu trúc:

S + be + Adj + enough (for O) + to infi.

S + V (thường) + Adv + enough (for O) + to infi.

He is old enough to get married.

He’s intelligent enough to get good marks.

They speak slowly enough to understand.



  • Trong cấu trúc: so + adjective + as + infinitive

He was so foolish as to leave his car unlocked.

  • Trong cấu trúc: It + cost/ take + O + to infinitive…

It would cost millions/ take years to rebuild the castle.

2.3. Sau một số từ để hỏi:

Verb + how/what/when/where/ which/why + infinitive

Những động từ sử dụng công thức này là ask, decide, discover, find out, forget, know, learn, remember, see, show + object, think, understand, want to know, wonder.

He discovered how to open the safe.

I showed her which button to press.

She wondered whether to write or phone.

2.4. Chỉ mục đích:

He tried to study hard in order to / so as to/ to pass every exam



2.5. Noun + to infinitive ( replace a relative clause)

I have many things which I must do/ to do



2.6. S + V + Đại từ bất định + To V

(anywhere, anybody, anything, somebody, something, somewhere, nobody, nothing, nowhere, everything, everybody, everywhere)

Is there anywhere to go?

He has got nothing to eat



2.7. Sau một số cụm từ sau:

  • be about :định, sẽ He is just about to leave

  • be able : có thể

  • do one’s best : cố gắng

  • make an/ every effort: nỗ lực

  • make up one’s mind: quyết định

  • can’t afford: không đủ tiền We can’t afford to live in the centre

2.8. Thay cho một mệnh đề quan hệ:

Động từ nguyên thể có thể được sử dụng sau the first, the second..., the last, the only và thỉnh thoảng sau so sánh hơn nhất

He loves parties; he is always the first who comes and the last who leaves.

= He loves parties; he is always the first to come and the last to leave

He is the second one to be killed in this way.

3. The perfect infinitive:


  • Form: to have + V(ed)

  • Use:

  • Dùng với was/ were để diễn tả một kế hoạch chưa thực hiện được

The house was to have been ready today (but it isn’t)

  • Dùng sau would/ would like để diễn tả một điều ước vẫn chưa hoàn thiện

He would like to have seen it (but it was impossible)

  • Dùng với một số động từ: appear, happen, pretend, seem, believe, consider, find, know, report, say, suppose, think, understand…

III. PASSIVE INFINITIVE AND GERUND:

+ Passive gerund: being + past participle

She hates being called a dull.

The mountain climbers are in danger of being killed by an avalanche.

I am interested in being given money by my mother.



+ Passive infinitive(to be + V(ed)): Dùng để nhấn mạnh hành động hơn là tác nhân gây ra hành động

I hoped to be invited to the party.



He refused to be taken to hospital.

PHẦN II: BÀI TẬP VẬN DỤNG
Exercise 1: Multiple choice

  1. Do you mind_______ such a long way to work everyday?

a. to travel b. travel c. to have travelled d. travelling

  1. I don’t like that house. I would hate _______there.

a. live b. living c. to live d. to have lived

  1. Please remember _______this letter.

a. to post b. post c. posting d. to have posted

  1. We tried _______the fire out but we were unsuccessful. We had to call the fire­- brigade.

a. putting b. put c. to put d. to have put

  1. Someone must have taken my bag. I clearly remember_____ it by the window and now it has gone.

a. leave b. to leave c. to have left d. leaving

  1. Please tell me how _______this

a. do b. to do c. doing d. to have done

  1. You are old enough _______out alone.

a. going b. to go c. to have gone d. go

  1. We stopped_______ hello to her.

a. say b. to say c. saying d. to have said

  1. It’s no use ______ those things.

a. buy b. buying c. to buy d. to be bought

  1. After ______, she invited the audience to ask questions.

a. finish b. finished c. finishing d. to finish

  1. Robbins started ______ a few years ago.

a. to jog b. jogging c. jog d. A and B are correct

  1. I suggest ________ some more mathematics puzzles.

a. do b. to do c. doing d done

  1. My computer needs _______.

a. repair b. to repair c. repairing d. repaired

  1. Don’t forget _______ the letter I gave you yesterday

a. post b. posting c. posts d. to post

  1. Mary was in a difficult situation, so he agreed _______ her some money

a. to lend b. lend c. lending d. a & c correct

  1. It was a nice day, so we decided _______ for a walk

a. going b. go c. to go d. goes

  1. The man wanted to avoid _______ on security cameras.

a. to see b. seeing c .to be seen d. being seen

  1. The plants want _______ daily.

a. to water b. watering c. to be watered d. both b and c

  1. Will you remind me _______ this letter at the post office?

a. to post b. posting c. to be posted d. being posted

  1. The goods ought _______ two weeks ago.

a. to deliver b. delivering c. to be delivered d. being delivered

  1. I have expected _______the secret of happiness.

a. to tell b. telling c. to be told d. being told

  1. I don’t like _____ when I am not there.

a. criticizing b. being criticized c. to criticize d. to be criticized

  1. She expected ________ to the principal.

a. to introduce b. being introduced c. to be introduced d. being introduced

  1. Tom was sad about ________ in class yesterday.

a. punishing b. being punished c. to be punished d. punished

  1. You shouldn’t make your son _______ too much.

a. study b. studied c. to study d. studying

  1. John had agreed _______ me in his office.

a. to meet b. meeting c. to be met d. being met

  1. It’s important for the figures _______. regularly.

a. to update b. updating c. to be updated d. being updated

  1. It is no good _______ sorry for yourself.

a. to feel b. feeling c. feel d. felt

  1. Peter regrets _______Marry’s birthday party

a. not to attend b. not attending c. not to be attending d. not to be attended

  1. Will you remind me _______ this letter at the post office?

a. to post b. posting c. to be posted d. being posted

  1. I shall never forget_______with you to Paris last year.

a. staying b. to staying c. to stay d. stayed

  1. Could you please stop _______so much noise?

a. make b. to make c. made d. making

  1. She said that she had talked to me but I didn’t remember _______her before.

  1. seeing b. to see c. not seeing d. see

  1. Let your name_______in the sheet of paper.

a. write b. be written c. written d. to write

  1. We hoped……………..by our teacher.

  1. to help b. helping c. to be helped d. being helped

  1. Cars must not______in front of the entrance.

A. park B. to park C. to be parked D. be parked

  1. Have you ever considered _______ a pharmacist?

A. become B. to become C. becoming D. became

  1. I’m allowed _________ my grandfather.

A. visit B. to visit C. visited D. visiting

  1. I would rather ________ at home than go out with you.

A. staying B. to stay C. stay D. stayed

  1. You should give up ________ or you will die of cancer.

A. smoke B. to smoke C. smoking D. smoked

  1. He missed ________ her at the airport yesterday.

A. see B. to see C. sees D. seeing

  1. We couldn’t help _______ some things when we went shopping.

A. buying B. buy C.to buy D. bought

  1. I am used to _______ up early.

A. getting B. get C. got D. to get

  1. I saw Mary ________ in the park last night.

A. walk B. to walk C. to walking D. walked

  1. My parents don’t permit me ________ out at night.

A. gone B. went C. to go D. going

  1. You’d better ________ at home today.

A. stay B. to stay C. staying D. stays

  1. He orders me __________ this report.

A. write B. to write C. writing D. wrote

  1. I promised on time . I mustn’t late .

A. be / be B. to be / to be C. to be / be D. be / to be

  1. His parents never allowed him ................

A. smoking B. smoking C. to smoke D. smoke

  1. His sister apologized ______ rude to him.

A. to be B. for being C. to being D. being

  1. I advised her ______ anything about it to her friends.

A. not saying B. not to say C. saying D. not say

  1. I asked Barbara to let me ______ her car for the weekend.

A. to use B. used C. using D. use

  1. I'm looking forward _______ receiving your email soon.
    A. at B. to C. in D. for

  2. I _________ everybody for all the help they had given me.

A. thanked B. blamed C. apologized D. suggested

  1. The teacher encouraged _______________ good compositions.

A. us write B. us to write C. us writing D. us to writing

  1. The doctor told me ___________________.

A. I stay in bed for a few days B. I will stay in bed for a few days

C. I have to stay in bed for a few days D. to stay in bed for a few days


Exercise 3: Find a mistake in the four underlined parts A,B,C or D of each sentence.

  1. Get more exercise appears to be the best way to lose weight.

  2. Let’s stop to watch so much TV so that we can read or go out instead.

  3. I advise you starting looking for a flat at once.

  4. He postponed to make a decision till it was too late to do anything.

  5. It is extremely important for an engineer to know to use a computer.

  6. There’s no point having a car if you never use it.

  7. I’d like him going to a university, but I can’t make him go.

  8. Simon finds it hard for making friends with other children.

  9. During a curfew it is not possible walking on the streets after a specified hour.

  10. His teacher encouraged him talking part in the international piano competition.

  11. Don’t let the children to stay up too late.

  12. We were made doing a lot of homework at our school.






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